PSYC 3480 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Quid Pro Quo, Dating Abuse, Psychological Abuse

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17 Nov 2016
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Chapter 14
Violence Against Girls and Women
Something that realtes to sexuality or have sexual components it is unwelcomed behaviour.
The individual is experiencing negative emotions towards this.
Sexual Harassment at School
Sexual harassment in an educational setting: Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior of a
sexual nature when
Submission to or rejection of the behavior forms the basis for decisions about
the student (e.g., admission, grades)
The behavior creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive study environment
--- can be by a person in a position of power and the student is in a position where they
have to comply for advance like grades, reference letters and so on . it is very prevalent in
elementary and secondary school . it is thought to occur in the workplace but cross
referencing it has been found to be in academic level as well
- It is on the rise and happens to be more for girls than boys because the perpetrators are
usually males.
- Sexual harassment has to happen repeatedly
- Unwanted is the main word
- Remember the difference between sexual harassment and assault
Elementary and secondary school
Reports of student sexual harassment on the rise
Incidence
Types of harassment
Gender differences
Experiences of harassment more stressful for girls than for boys
The college campus
Gender differences in classifying behavior as sexual harassment
Controversies in definition
Incidence of sexual harassment
Difficult to assess
Responses to sexual harassment
Sexual harassment in the workplace:
Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior when
Submission to or rejection of the behavior forms the basis for work-related
decisions (quid pro quo) such as the individual getting time off etc. there is a power
imbalance could me someone in an executive level exerting these behaviors to an
admin level employee.
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The behavior creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment
(hostile environment) (Morgan & Gruber, 2011). The victim tolerates this to avoid
affecting their work.
----- signs can be overtly offensive to women, like making comments .
- It also has to be repeated and seem to affect functionality at work.
Incidence
Commonplace around the globe
Most commonly takes form of sexual remarks and jokes (Burn, 2011)
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
Incidence, continued
Occupational characteristics related to sexual harassment
Male-dominated, blue-collar occupations
Military
Target characteristics related to sexual harassment
Gender
Age
Marital status
Sexual orientation
Ethnicity
--- for example for the end of year party, they would bring in a stripper in male dominated
jobs. In the military this is prevalent and continually on the increase.
- People from lower economic classes are more prone to becoming victims of sexual
assault and harassment because again of the power imbalances.
Characteristics of offenders
People who perpetrate sexual harassment meets certain criteria
- The individual associates power with sexuality and the individual is motivated to harass
because they have power
- they have a tendency to overcome internal and external inhibitions and see the will to
not see the victim as a victim
- Internal inhibitions transient thought that they may or may not act on whilt external
deals with policies and right from wrong knowledge.
Consequences
Psychological consequences
Physical consequences
Effects of hostile environment
Effects of labeling experience as harassment
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
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People usually seek treatment for things like depression and anxiety and do not realize that
sexual assault or harassment are the underlying factors but are educated into the
realization throughout therapy treatment.
Explanations
Sex-role spillover theory: In workplaces with unequal concentrations of men and
women, gender is highly salient attribute. In these environments men respond to
female employees more as women than as workers (Burn, 2011).
Power theory: Sexual harassment is seen as an abuse of power to gain sexual favors
or to reinforce the imbalance of power
Organizational intolerance
Because of a shared pattern of ideas and believes it is condoned depsited policies in place
but it most likely individuals will be held accountable.
Women’s responses
Two category framework (Fitzgerald et al., 2001)
Internally focused responses
Externally focused responses
Most women do not confront perpetrator
Differences by ethnicity
Stalking
What is it?
Unwanted and repeated actions toward an individual that induce fear or concern for
safety
Perpetrators, victims, and effects
Most stalkers are male
Most victims are female
Can be psychologically harmful
Violence against Girls
Child sexual abuse: Contact and noncontact sexual experiences in which the victim is
below the age of consent and the abuser is significantly older or in a position of power over
the child (Barnett et al., 2005)
Contact sexual abuse
Noncontact sexual abuse
Exploitation through the internet
Incest: Sexual contact between a child and a close blood relative or other family
member
Violence against Girls
Incidence
Difficult to pinpoint
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