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Lecture 5

Week 5- Wednesday October 9 ‘Race’ and Racialization .docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1502
Amar Wahab

Week 5: Wednesday October 9 „Race‟ and Racialization Readings: Lopez, The Social Construction of Race (G&K) • No genetic characteristics possessed by all blacks but not by non blacks • There is no gene or cluster of genes common to al whites but not to non whites • Ones race is not determines by a single gene or gene cluster • All races marked by important differences in gene frequencies (rate of appearance of certain gene types • Intragroup differences exceed intergroup differences • Greater genetic variation exists within the populations typically labeled black and white than between these populations • Racial divisions reflect fundamental genetic differences • Notion that humankind can be divided along white, black and yellow lines reveal the social origin of race (compared to scientific) • Idea of three races --caucasoid, negroid and monogoloid is rooted in the european imagination of the middle ages • The test if race afforded by the mere colour of the skin of each individual is impracticable as that differs greatly among persons of the same race Mere colour of the skin does not provide a means to racially divide people • • Racial group means a set of individuals whos identity as such is distinctive in terms of physical characteristics or biological decent • Differences between the same race are often greater than the differences between the average individuals of different races • Race must be viewed as a social construction • Human interaction rather than racial differentiation must be seen as the source and continued basis for racial categorization • Process by which racial meaning arise has been labeled racial formation • Race is not a determinant or a reside of some other social phenomena but it stands on is won as an amalgamation of competing social forces Racial fabrication • • Humans rather than abstract social forces produce race • Human constructs, race constitutes an integral part of a whole social fabric that includes gender and class relations • Meaning systems surrounding race change quickly rather than slowly • Race are constructed relationally, against one and other, rather than isolation • Transformation of mexican from a nationality to a race came about through dynamic interplay of myriad social forces • Dominant ideologies, perceived economic interests and psychological necessity cause these changes • Races are constructed, ideas about race form party of a whole social fabric into which other relations, among them gender and class are also woven • Masculine imagery is created through a reflection of symbiosis in contrition of racial and gender hierarchies during the century • Social renditions of masculinity and femininity are inseverably a part of racial constructs, just as racial stereotypes embody some element of sexual identity The archaeology of race soon becomes excavation of gender and sexual identity • • The syncretic nature of racial, gender and class constructs suggests that a global approach to oppression is not only desirable, it is necessary if the amelioration of these destructive social hierarchies is to be achieved • Rapid systems of racial systems of meanings can change • The process of racial fabrication continuously melt down, mold, twist and recast races: races are not rocky, they are plastics Angela Davis, Reproductive Rights (G&K) • Young white feminists might have been more receptive to suggestion that their campaign for abolition rights include a vigorous condemnation of sterilization abuse, which as become more widespread then ever • Relf sisters • Teenagers sterilized • Mainly black • Sterilization abuse on pregnant women • Revelations of sterilization abuse during the time exposed the complicity of the federal government • apx.16000 women and 8000 men were sterilized in 1972 under auspices of federal programs • Actually 100000 -200000 (compared to nazi 250000) 1976 20% of aboriginal women sterilized - stopping blood lines • • Less children = more wealth apparently • Minority races continue to be sterilized at alarming rates • Inside US today large numbers of people of colour and racially oppressed youth have become part of a pool of permanently unemployed youth • Growing number of white people suffer brutal consequences of unemployment, they can also expect to become targets of official sterilization propaganda • Sterilization only way to fulfill abortion • Sterilizations as federal funned and free to poor women on demand • Women of colour are urged to become permanently infertile, white women enjoy prosperous economic conditions are urged to reproduce themselves Fundamental reproductive right of racially oppressed and poor women is at stake • Hammonds, New Technologies of Race (G&K) • No scientific justification for race discrimination • Mental capacities of all races are similar • No evidence for biological deterioration as a result of hybridization existed • No correlation between national or religious groups and any race • Race was less biological fact than a social myth • Desire of scientists to redress excesses of nazism, where biological notions of racial difference and racial inferiority had been used to justify the extermination of jews and homosexuals, rather than offering a balanced account of the contemporary scientific debates over the role of environment, heredity and culture in the observed differences between races • Publication of UNESCO signaled end of mainstream scientific support for racial science • New place of discussion populations, gene frequencies, selection and adaption • Biological study of human diversity is now permeated with language of genetics and evolution • Race term unnecessary for purposes of biological inquiry • US race has been dependent on the visual Morphing is race • • Miscegenation becomes border crossing between human and the other • Immigration followed by intermarriage are said to be driving force behind new aspect of race relations in america • Race could be physical differences or a mere social construct • Whites are whites, black is the issue • Race mixing • Hierarchies of domination have not disappeared as female reproduction is replace by a masculine technophilic reproduction because stereotypical racial typologies remain in place • Women have only symbolized denial of citizenship • Deny kinship and retain masculine power based on the maintenance of racial difference Film: Race, the power of an illusion (part two) Lecture:“Race” and Racialization Making “Race” • “Race” is not natural but socially & historically constructed with very real/powerful effects. • Ideas about “race” emerged during colonialism as a way of producing difference and controlling racialized others. • Scientific racism & essentialism: • Socially and historically constructed • Rise of scientific racism and essentialism / • The rise of Western European Science (e.g. Darwin‟s “Great Chain of Being”) • Western European scientific thinking about “race” as the master discourse of colonization, capi
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