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Genomes of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Organelles.docx

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BIOL 3150

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Genomes of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Organelles • Prokaryotes = Bacteria and Archaea • Prokaryotic cells distinguished by absence of nucleus, DNAconcentrated instead at nucleoid • Plasmids existing in multiple copies not usually considered part of prokaryotic genomes, but blurred in species where plasmids contain essential genes o Bacterial plasmids usually encode genes whose products confer some advantages to host cells under certain growth conditions (ex. Fertility, Resistance) • Genomes of all prokaryotes are composed of double stranded DNAthat could either be circular or linear ranging from 1 to several chromosomes • Bacterial genomes are usually less than 5Mb, seems to be a limit to minimum of genes (~500) required for free living cell • General correlation between gene number and size of prokaryotic genomes • General trend in reduction of genome sizes and ranges from free-living prokaryotes to obligate parasites to obligate symbionts • Most bacterial genes are devoted to translation and metabolism • Comparative genomics analysis shows that genomes of many prokaryotes contain a lot of genes acquired through lateral gene transfer (LGT), which challenges species concept based on gene flow o Lateral gene transfer: acquisition of genetic
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