HIST1083 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Cogito Ergo Sum, Age Of Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution

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12 Nov 2016
The Enlightenment
Push back against absolutist era
Brings society to value rights
Response to absolutism
Incentive of population to borrow ideas from Reformation, Scientific Revolution,
etc that pushes back against this oppression and look forward to equality
“Man leaving his self-caused immaturity”
Age of Discovery
Scientific Revolution
Idea of reason, empirical research
Core Principles
Born equal
Natural law
Inherent rights
Intellectual Roots
Roots in France
Expansion of education
Open to new views
Critique of King and Church
Privileged few living a wealthy comfortable life
Most in poverty
Critique of Superstition
Defies logic
Critique of censorship laws
Sign that state is afraid of what is out there
Building on Existing Knowledge
Geocentrism from Greek learning
Heliocentrism of Copernicus, Kepler
Order of planets, Galileo
Planetary gravity, Newton
Republic of Letters
Movement of early 1700s-
Growing numbers of educated non-noble, wealthier people
Look for share in running of society because it is deserved
Seeking how to influence the world by getting together in groups
Meet in salons and cafes
Key individuals
Rene Descartes
“I think, therefore I am” (Cogito, ergo sum)
Skepticism key, learning method
Individual perception trumps traditional ideas
Isaac Newton
The mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687)
Built on Copernicus and Kepler into planets and gravity
Still dabbled in alchemy, biblical interpretations
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