HIST 1084 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Petrograd Soviet, Mensheviks, Autocracy

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27 Mar 2017
Module 4
The Russian Revolution 1917
Promised political and economic equality
Marxist cartoon of Russia’s social pyramid depicting the tsar, nobility, clergy, military,
bourgeoisie, and workers
Bourgeosie only .5% of population of 110 million
6.6 million square miles of territory (80000 square miles)
Political Players
Tsar Nicholas II: “uphold the principle of autocracy as firmly and unflinchingly as my late
unforgettable father”
Kadets - liberal, bourgeois class
Social revolutionaries: Bolsheviks (Lenin’s Party) and Mensheviks (orthodox)
1905: A New Hope
Russia lost war to Japan
Domestic protests
Pressure to change
Tsar concedes new parliament (Duma)
Powerless body
The Empire Strikes Back
Bolshevik Revolution 1905-1914
Lenin flees Tsar’s secret police crackdown on Bolsheviks
Radical fringe minority
yet, by 1917, control russia
World War I
Tsar ignores people’s suffering
Food shortages and urban unrest
Military disaster
Bolsheviks call for war in end
First Act: February Revolution 1917
Rise of Soviets
Army factions join protest
Dual Power
Provisional committee has legal authority
Petrograd Soviet has street power
Uneasy alliance
APRIL 1917: Return of the Red Eye
Returns to Russia overnight from Switzerland via Germany
Arrives april 16, 1917 and issues April Theses to Bolsheviks
Reject provisional government
Create Republic of Soviet Workers
Abolish army, police
Rise of Bolsheviks
Benefit from April Thesis
Frustrated workers and peasants more accepting of Bolshevik leadership
Hatred of war
20000 members grow to 200000 by October 1917
Dozens of newspapers
Armed media - Red Guard
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