ENG 571 Lecture 36: Ch. 36- Adult Learners in Eng as a Second_Foreign Lang Setting)
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● Wide variation of students from age range, ethnicity, educational background,
literacy skills, occupation, and educational attainment.
● Immigrants are sometimes labeled by the length of time they’ve been in the
country. Education of long-term immigrants has assumed more prominence in
○ Immigrants who have left their native countries because of various push-
○ Those who have left their native countries for low-skilled work, especially
in agriculture, food services etc. (called migrant workers)
○ Refugees - immigrants who have left their homes, often unwillingly,
because of religious or ethic persecution, political upheaval, or war.
Refugees have to deal with tremendous psychological effects from their
● Important for teachers to understand the sociopolitical context of the country in
which they teach
○ Inner circle countries - countries where english is spoken as a native
○ Outer circle countries - individuals may not be native speakers of a
standard variety of english but speak an institutionalized second
language variety because of past colonial relationships with inner-circle
○ Expanding circle countries - countries where english is considered a
foreign language and is used in restricted domains.
● Students are learning English to enhance skills for work or future educational
● Students are more homogenous in background than ESL learners.