PSYCH 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Autonomic Nervous System, Sympathetic Nervous System, Amygdala

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1 Sep 2015
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4/10/14
Psychology Notes- Day 22 (Ch.12)
Emotions, stress and health
Emotions
Organized psychological and physiological reactions to changes in one’s relationship to
the world
These reactions are:
oPartly inner or subjective experience (psychological)
oPartly measureable patterns of behavior and physiological arousal
Controversy
Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?
Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
But Why Do We Feel Emotion??
James-Lange
oOur awareness of our peripheral responses is emotion
Canon-Bard
oEmotions come directly from the brain
Cognitive theories (two-factor theory)
oWe interpret events outside and inside our body, it is these interpretations that
leads to emotions
James-Lange Theory
Physiological activity precedes the emotional experience
Ex: Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)
oPhysiological arousal first
Pounding Heart
oEmotional arousal second
Fear
Cannon-Bard Theory
Proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body’s arousal take place
simultaneously
Ex: Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)
oPhysiological arousal and Emotional arousal occur at the same time
Pounding heart and Fear would occur simultaneously
Two Factor Theory
Suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions
Emotions have two factors – physical arousal and cognitive label
Ex. Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)
oTwo factos are essential to spark emotion
oPhysiological arousal and a label
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Pounding heart, and the label, “I’m afraid”
oEmotional arousal comes after this (Fear)
Components of Emotion
Psychological (subjective) experience
o“how we feel”
Emotions are behaviors
oShouting when angry, crying when sad
Emotions as physiological responses
oFor example, increasing heartbeat, sweating
oInfluenced by our autonomic nervous system
Physiological Similarities
Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very
similar
oExcitement and fear involve a similar physiological arousal
Physiological Differences
Finger temperature, facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy
Activity o the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System Controls Physiological Arousal
Sympathetic Division
(arousing)
Parasympathetic division
(calming)
Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract
Decreases SALIVATION Increases
Perspires SKIN Dries
Increases RESPIRATION Decreases
Accelerates HEART Slows
Inhibits DIGESTION Activates
Secretes Stress Hormones ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease Secretion of Stress
Hormones
Arousal and Performance
Arousal in short spurts are adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, but
optimal performance varies with task difficulty
Cognition Can Define Emotion
An arousal to one event spills over into our response to the next event
Ex.- Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion
Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a) or through the cortex (b) for analysis
Two Routes of Emotion:
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Document Summary

4/10/14: organized psychological and physiological reactions to changes in one"s relationship to. Emotions the world: these reactions are, partly inner or subjective experience (psychological, partly measureable patterns of behavior and physiological arousal. James-lange: our awareness of our peripheral responses is emotion, canon-bard, emotions come directly from the brain, cognitive theories (two-factor theory, we interpret events outside and inside our body, it is these interpretations that leads to emotions. James-lange theory: physiological activity precedes the emotional experience, ex: sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus, physiological arousal first. Cannon-bard theory: proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body"s arousal take place simultaneously, ex: sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus, physiological arousal and emotional arousal occur at the same time. Pounding heart and fear would occur simultaneously. Two factor theory: suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions, emotions have two factors physical arousal and cognitive label, ex.

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