Hydrogen ion concentration regulation, hydrogen ion sources, proximal tubule, distal nephron, toxicity of compounds

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Biomedical Science
BMS 360
Douglas Ishii

2 MayRegulation of Hydrogen Ion ConcentrationHigh concentrations of acid can be extremely damaging to proteins and cellular processes and must be closely regulatedAcid can alter the structure of and denature enzymes and other proteinsNormal range of pH 738742Acidosis low pH CNS depression confusion coma respiratory inhibitionAlkalosis high pH Overactive neurons paresthesia muscle twitches muscle tetanus with paralysis of respiratory musclesRegulation Respiratory and renal systems work togetherHydrogen Ion SourcesCell metabolism 20000 mmol COday CA HCOH23Normal ventilation the CO is exhaled2Hypoventilation Net CO is retained causing acidosis2Hyperventilation CO net loss causing alkalosis2Nonvolatile acids produced 4080 mmoldayLactic acid fatty acidsPhosphoric acidSulfuric acid amino acidsMuch of nonvolatile acids is metabolized to HCO3Gastrointestinal productionH in stomachHCO in intestines loss equivalent to increased H3Renal adjusts secretion or excretion of HTable 146
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