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LIFE 210 (38)

Glycolysis, fructose 2,6 BisP

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 210
Paul Laybourn

30 September Introduction to Metabolic Regulation Regulated steps at the beginning Catalyzed by enzymes that are regulated These enzymes Have sigmoidal responses to [S] Regulated hetereoallosterically by P, 2 or purely regulatory molecules Regulated in response to [ATP]/[ADP] Catabolic vs. Anabolic Pathways Catabolic produce ATP & NADH Shut off by high [ATP] Activated by low [ATP] Anabolic use ATP and NADH Shut off by low [ATP] Activated by high [ATP] Have bypass reactions at key regulated steps catalyzed by different enzymes Avoid futile cycles (catabolic and anabolic pathways running at the same rate, just using up energy) Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Takes about twice as much ATP to produce glucose than to break it down Energy flow diagram 2ADP ↔ ATP + AMP AMP used as effector indicative of low energy charge Summary of key regulated steps in glycolysis Step 1 Glucokinase is inhibited by G6P & F6P in glycolysis G6P activates G6 Phosphatase in gluconeogenesis Step 3 AMP and Fructose 2,6 BisP activate P-fructokinase in glycolysis; ATP inhibits AMP and Fructose 2,6 BisP inhibit F1,6 Bisphosphatase in gluconeogenesis AMP – ratio of ATP/ADP, energy charge Step 10 ATP and Acetyl-CoA inhibit Pyruvate kinase in glycolysis; F1,6 BisP activates Acetyl-CoA activates Pyruvate Carboxylase in gluconeogenesis 2ADP ↔ ATP + AMP ATP 5 mM ADP 0.2 mM AMP 0.004 mM Change ATP – 6% lead to ADP – 250% AMP – 500% If AMP increases, glycolysis increases, gluconeogenesis decreases AMP increase – low ATP/ADP ratio Role of Fructose 2,6 BisP in Liver Cell Metabolism The liver produces glucose for the brain, muscles, etc. Fructose 2,
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