Class Notes (809,906)
United States (313,928)
History (193)
HIST 1011 (95)
Lecture 8

HIST 1011 Lecture 8: 20 MARCH

4 Pages
Unlock Document

George Washington University
HIST 1011
Agnew Hugh

NEW NOTES 6 20 MARCH 2017 The Enlightenment ● The enlightenment--a complex associated groups of ideas, trends, and thoughts located in mostly the 18C--cosmopolitan and transatlantic--many participants in discussions like founding fathers were participants ● Committed to the idea of reason--”Dare to Know?!”-Emmanuel Kant--use ur rational factors and don’t concede to authority on how to use and when to use; all knowledge should be organized--ie.the concept of the encyclopedia ● Self-confidence bc they knew that they could figure things out and they would do it; to be applied fruitfully reason had to be unfettered ○ They felt that knowledge should be shared through free and open discussion and weren’t upset w treading on toes and ignored tradition for the sake of progress ○ Coupled with the conviction of reason, came the exception of getting the right answers; why try to reform if we aren’t going to do it right ● The unreflected assumption that human beings are the same and human nature is the same in all humans; the belief that society is reformable and should be reformed ● The Scientific ○ The scientific method--Inductive Reasoning--one observes reality and recognized similarities and expresses them in a true statement mathematically ○ Epistemology--what do we know and how to we know it; found in the works of John Locke ​On Human Understanding​--argued that our experience gives us knowledge--the human mind is not created with innate knowledge--​tabula rasa​--contrast to the previous idea that human nature is corrupted by original sin--locke says that if humans are bad it is bc of something that has happened to them ○ Takes the understanding of how we think and leads to the concept of reform ● The Pragmatic example of GB ○ GB had emerged in the 18C as a form of gov and society that seemed to be practically working after tumultuous 17C ■ Limiting the power of the crown, pragmatic approach to government, interest in economic development ■ Locke ​Two Treatises of Government​--Voltaire was influenced by this as well as others--argues that people look to GB as a model for how to work out a limited government system ■ Locke's discussion of the social contract (in contrast to Rousseau in the future)--rulers power depends on ruler not transgressing an agreement with the people; so when transgressions occur it is legitimate to overthrow the powers ● The Party of Humanity--applied to the general group of thinkers who discussed; freethinkers not bound by dogma NEW NOTES 7 ● Philosophe​--not necessarily ​philosopher​--related but different; it means a public intellectual who wrote abt things and argued with others abt other things--politics, economics, culture, theatre programs ○ Voltaire ​Philosophical Letters​--discussed the british beliefs in opened mindedness, liberty, criticized religious bigotry, attacked france; eradicate the infamous thing; corresponded w russia, spent time in exile from FR in GB, Prussia @ Frederick the Great ○ Montesquieu--another frenchman who had studied law ​The Spirit of the Law​--discussion of legal systems of the countries across the whole government--identified different forms of government like republic, democracy, despotism; when discussing GB, introduced the terms ​checks and balances​; also famous for scathing criticism of france in ​Persian Letters​--in the process of describing euro culture to fictional persian travelers to see how ridiculous society was ○ The Encyclopedia​--consortium of french knowledge in 17 volumes by Diderot and D’Alembert; spread widely throughout europe ● Concern for humanity and reason that occurred during the enlightenment ● Beccaria--​On Crimes and Punishments​--explores the deterrent efficacy of punishment and the use of capital punishment in the route of government; argues that capital punishment doesnt work at deterrence and doesn’t work for society bc a form of murder ● Religious toleration--resistance to political, social, and economic provisions against the church bc they were a landholder and controlled education and economy bc of wealth; as secularism is on the rise, the criticism of the church rises ○ Wars of religion of 17C, decried as wasteful in 18C--doesn’t mean that they were unreligious, basically just attacked the purpose of the church as an institution, they still believed in a generic god in one way or another--​DEISM​; some eventually reached atheism, but most were deists in one way or another ○ Earlier advocates of tolerance--Roger Williams Rhode Island--argued that we dont know so we can’t be certain of who is elect or who is going to be saved (against Calvinism) ■ Attitudes towards jews begin to show changes bc there are less criticisms of them bc they were looked as another valuable religion--Lessing (friends w an important intelle
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1011

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.