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Lecture 8

SPHR 2106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Neuroglia, Visual Cortex, Intellectual Disability


Department
Speech and Hearing Science
Course Code
SPHR 2106
Professor
Schulz
Lecture
8

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First week of development
Fertilization
Blastocyst cavity (first cells that implants into uterus)
Second week of development
Embryo formation: two cavities: amniotic and yoke sac
Third week of development
Formation of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
Neuroectoderm: thickening of dorsal embryonic
Creation of neural tube
Cells begin merging and form tube: Neural tube-brain and spinal cord
Anterior bump: cerebellar hemisphere
Week 6: head, teeth and ear
Week 7: palate is beginning to form
Week 9: looks like a baby
Developmental abnormalities (cleft palate) develop early
25 days: forebrain, hindbrain, midbrain
50 days: cerebellar hemisphere development
5 months: no convolutions
8months: folding of convolutions
9months: regular brain
Clinical correlates
Cerebrospinal disorders
Neural tube closure failures
Spina bifida: defective fusion of posterior vertebral column
Cystica
Anencephaly: brain is smooth at birth, no convolutions, defective fusion of neural
tube
Cranium bifidum: absence of posterior bone fusion
Brain protrusion
Arnold-Chiari malformation: mis development of foramen magnum causes displacement
of cerebellar tissue
Associated with spina bifida and hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus
Enlargement of ventricles because of inadequate ability of csf to flow through
tube of fourth ventricle
Prominent forehead
Brain atrophy
Mental deficiency and convulsions
Microcephaly
Small brain
Children born with mental deficiencies
Causes: environmental factors, radiation during critical growth
periods,genetics
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