Recruitment: set of activities designed to attract a qualified pool of job applicants to an organisation. The three steps in a typical recruitment process are advertising a job vacancy, preliminary contact with potential job candidates and initial screening to create a pool of qualified applicants. Potential job candidates can be recruited from many different sources. Internal searches, advertisements, employee referrals, university graduate recruitment, temp agencies and the internet. Socialisation: systematically changes the expectations, behaviour and attitudes of new employees, begins with orientation. Orientation: familiarises new employees with jobs, co-workers and organisational policies and services. Training: provides learning opportunities to acquire and improve job-related skills. Performance management system: set standards, assess results and plans for performance improvements. Performance appraisal: the process of formally evaluating performance and providing feedback to a job holder, serves two basic purposes in the maintenance of quality workforce: evaluation and development. Maintaining human resources involves managing both retention and turnover of resources.