Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (460,000)
LSU (7,000)
BIOL (1,000)
BIOL 1201 (700)
Lecture 4

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cytosine, Intermembrane Space, Starch


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
Moroney, James
Lecture
4

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Exam 2 Seth Borgstede
Chapter 8
9/25/14
Metabolism
All the reactions that occur in a cell
Definitions
Endergonic Reaction: a reaction that requires energy from the
surroundings
o DNA synthesis
Exergonic: A reaction that releases energy when it takes place
o ATP -> ADP+P (Important)
Coupled Reactions
Unfavorable reaction (endergonic) is linked to a very favorable
reaction (exergonic)
Example
o Glutamate + NH3 -> Glutamine (unfavorable)
o ATP -> ADP + Pi (favorable)
Enzymes and metabolism
Catalyst
o Lower the activation energy
Proteins
o Depend on shape for activity
Example
o Sucrase
o Sucrose + water -> glucose +fructose
Factors affecting Enzyme Activity
o Temperature and pH
o Cofactors
! Non protein “helpers” (inorganic metals, vitamins)
o Enzyme Inhibitors
! Molecules inhibiting activity
! Competitive Inhibition
" Active site blocked
! Non competitive Inhibition

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

" Inhibitor binds away from active site
" Changes protein shape
Metabolic Control
Most metabolic pathways are regulated
Regulated enzymes possess active and inactive forms
Regulation is reversible
Allosteric Regulation
o Regulatory molecule binds away from active site
o Regulatory molecule may be an activator or inhibitor
o Feedback Inhibition sometimes controls pathways
Chapter 9
9/30/14
Cellular Respiration
Breaks down sugars and release energy
Energy is used to form ATP
Sugars formed through photosynthesis
3 main parts
o Glycolysis (NO oxygen)
o Krebs Cycle (NO oxygen)
o Electron Transport Chain (with oxygen)
Aerobic Respiration
o Glucose + O2 to CO2 plus H2O
o Know how to balance equation
o High energy Molecules
! NADH and ATP
! NAD+ picks up electrons from glucose during glycolysis
and the Krebs cycle forming NADH
o Reduced -> More electrons
o Oxidized -> Less electrons
10/7/14
Glycolysis
2 ATP used
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version