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Lecture 4

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cytosine, Intermembrane Space, Starch

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Moroney, James

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Exam 2 Seth Borgstede
Chapter 8
All the reactions that occur in a cell
Endergonic Reaction: a reaction that requires energy from the
o DNA synthesis
Exergonic: A reaction that releases energy when it takes place
o ATP -> ADP+P (Important)
Coupled Reactions
Unfavorable reaction (endergonic) is linked to a very favorable
reaction (exergonic)
o Glutamate + NH3 -> Glutamine (unfavorable)
o ATP -> ADP + Pi (favorable)
Enzymes and metabolism
o Lower the activation energy
o Depend on shape for activity
o Sucrase
o Sucrose + water -> glucose +fructose
Factors affecting Enzyme Activity
o Temperature and pH
o Cofactors
! Non protein “helpers” (inorganic metals, vitamins)
o Enzyme Inhibitors
! Molecules inhibiting activity
! Competitive Inhibition
" Active site blocked
! Non competitive Inhibition

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" Inhibitor binds away from active site
" Changes protein shape
Metabolic Control
Most metabolic pathways are regulated
Regulated enzymes possess active and inactive forms
Regulation is reversible
Allosteric Regulation
o Regulatory molecule binds away from active site
o Regulatory molecule may be an activator or inhibitor
o Feedback Inhibition sometimes controls pathways
Chapter 9
Cellular Respiration
Breaks down sugars and release energy
Energy is used to form ATP
Sugars formed through photosynthesis
3 main parts
o Glycolysis (NO oxygen)
o Krebs Cycle (NO oxygen)
o Electron Transport Chain (with oxygen)
Aerobic Respiration
o Glucose + O2 to CO2 plus H2O
o Know how to balance equation
o High energy Molecules
! NADH and ATP
! NAD+ picks up electrons from glucose during glycolysis
and the Krebs cycle forming NADH
o Reduced -> More electrons
o Oxidized -> Less electrons
2 ATP used
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