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Lecture 13

GN 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: National Institutes Of Health, Shinya Yamanaka, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Course Code
GN 301
Marian- Elizabeth B.Gardner

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3.3 Stem Cells
Tuesday, October 24, 2017
10:04 AM
Undifferentiated cells that can become another stem cell or any specialized cell
o Divide continuously (immortal)
o Used to test different drugs, learn developmental processes, repair damaged tissues
Treat: Alzheier’s, Parkiso’s, diabetes, heat disease, burs, boe issues
Heart Attacks clinical trial:insertion of bone marrow into heart within 5-10 days
of heart attack
o Embryonic: pluripotent; can differentiate into any tissue type
From blastocyst of embryo
Put DNA into somatic cell of human egg
o Adult: multipotent; limited into what tissue they can become
From umbilical cord, bone marrow, adult cells
Can contain environmental hazards and mutations from mitosis divisions
o Signal transduction genes
On cell membrane; get signal from outside and relay it through proteins to cause
change in cell
Also found in nonstem cells; timing and combo of genes important
o 80 important genes
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
o Nucleus of body cell put into egg cell
o induced to form embryo
o stem cells harvested
Nuclear Reprogramming Induced Pluripotent Cells (iPS)
o Skin cells removed
o Retrovirus injected in and reprogram cell to become stem cells
o No use of embryos
Windpipe Transplant Breakthrough
o Rid of antigens on donated tissue and add stem cells to avoid incompatibility
Collagen made from stem cells and put on donor windpipe and put in patient
Spray on Skin Gun
o Induced pluripotent cells put on burn victims
2012 Nobel prize Winners
o John Gurdon
Specialized cells still contain genetic info to create all cell types
o Shinya Yamanaka
Insertion of 4 genes into specialized cell can make pluripotent cells
o Bush only allowed funding for stem cell lines until 2001
o Obama allowed funding for stem cell lines after 2001
o NIH published guidelines in 2009
Left over embryos donated for research
find more resources at
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