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Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression Notes

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160
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2/25 Chapter 18: Eukaryotic Gene Expression Eukaryotes • Basic Characteristics o Have linear chromosomes enclosed in a nucleus o DNA is complexed with proteins (histones) o Genome is very large compared to prokaryotic genes  more complex regulation o Genome has repetitive DNA o Genes have introns o Complex cellular organelles  Mitochondria (have their own genome)  Endoplasmic Reticulum (very complex, important because it processes proteins)  Chloroplasts (also have their own genome)  Centrioles • Important Differences o Bacteria and Archea  Small genome  Circular DNA not complexed with protein  Have operons  Rapid generation time (no development)  No chromatin Repetitive DNA • Many sequences are repeated several to several million times 5 7 o Regular Satellite DNA: short, repeated pieces 1-10 bp long (10 -10 copies) 2/25 o Multigene Families:  rRNA genes  Histone genes  Hemoglobin genes • Alpha/beta groups • Both have various versions  Produced by repeated gene duplication o Pseudogenes:  Not active  Have lost regulatory sequences like promoters • Can’t be transcribed  Evidence of the effects of duplication and mutation during evolution Control of Gene Expression • Basic Process o Expression is tightly controlled during development and maintenance o Only certain genes are expressed in certain tissues o Some genes are turned off via DNA methylation o Some genes are up regulated by histone acetylation  Makes DNA less tightly wrapped in nucleosomes  easier access for RNA polymerase to promoters o
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