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Studying Personality Notes

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PSY 0160
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9/3 Studying Personality Sources of Information Self: introspection, self-reflection; can be very misleading because people’s self-reports are not accurate Others: making observations of other people Types of Information Objective: measure of concrete reality that involves no interpretation Subjective: involves interpretation (ex. Interpretation of facial expressions) Goal • Depth of understanding o Ideographicspecific to an individual o Better understanding of the whole person • Generalizability o Nomotheticapplies to a broad range of people o Best when data are from many people and different types of people Gathering Information Case Study • Intense examination of an individual; “personology” • In-depth knowledge of normal life occurrences, discovery of the person • Limited generalization, limited control Self­Report Data • Scales: rates one trait of personality • Inventories: several distinct aspects of personality 9/3 • Peoples are concerned with self-presentation and want to make themselves appear a certain way, may not disclose bad things • Accessibility is a limitation 9may not remember, may not have self-awareness) Experience Sampling • Diary studies conducted across an extended period of time • Multiple observations, don’t need to remember too far back, researcher can assess patterns • Takes a long time, participants might not follow through or report accurately, disruptive to participants’ lives Informant­Report Data • Judgments about an individual’s attributes by people who know them well • More access to information • Context-specific data (certain behaviors may not be exhibited around that person), biased Behavioral Data • Direct observation by researchers (in lab or natural setting) • Expensive, time-consuming, limite
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