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Lecture 4

01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Lewis Terman, Impulsivity, Attention

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1. What does Sternberg’s theory emphasize when it comes to deciding what
intelligence is?
a. Sternberg emphasizes that successful intelligence is revealed in people’s pursuit
of goals, which vary in different cultural or ethnic groups. That is, intelligence is
defined by the demands of an environment or culture. What is intelligent for
children growing up in North American cities may not be intelligent for children
growing up in the Sahara desert, the Australian outback, or on a remote island in
the Pacific Ocean. For example, in Brazil, many school-age boys sell candy and
fruit to bus passengers and pedestrians. These children often cannot identify the
numbers on paper money, yet they know how to purchase their goods from
wholesale stores, make change for customers, and keep track
2. What was the original intelligence test designed to do? Does it do it?
a. Lewis Terman of Stanford University revised Binet and Simon’s test and named it
the Stanford-Binet. Terman described performance as an intelligence quotient,
or IQ, which was the ratio of MA to CA, multiplied by 100
b. In fact, IQ scores are remarkably powerful predictors of developmental
outcomes. IQ scores predict school grades, scores on achievement tests, and
number of years of education with correlations that are usually between .5 and .7
3. Is there evidence that some ethnic groups are genetically predisposed to have higher
IQs than others?
a. Asian Americans tend to have the highest scores, followed by European
Americans, Latino Americans, and African Americans . The gaps have become
smaller since the 1960s and reflect, in part, group differences in socioeconomic
status . Children from economically advantaged homes tend to have higher test
scores than children from economically disadvantaged homes, and European
American and Asian American families are more likely to be economically
advantaged, whereas Latino American and African American families are more
likely to be economically disadvantaged. Nevertheless, when children from
comparable socioeconomic status are compared, group differences in IQ test
scores are reduced but not eliminated
4. Know the environmental influences your text describes that contribute to group
differences in average IQ.
a. Children tend to have greater IQ scores when the family environment is
intellectually stimulating—when parents talk frequently to their children, when
they provide their children with cognitively challenging materials such as puzzles
and books, and when they expose children to stimulating experiences outside the
home, such as visits to museums
b. The importance of a stimulating environment for intelligence is also demonstrated
by intervention programs that prepare economically disadvantaged children for
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