BIOL 211 Lecture 1: Chapter 1 and 3

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8 Feb 2017
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Chapter One
Nomenclature
Naming for organisms
Established by Carolus Linnaeus
Two names for scientific nomenclature
The genus (capitalized) and then the specific epithet (species name)
Bacteria (cell wall contain a protein - carbohydrate complex called peptidoglycan)
Simple, single celled organisms
Prokaryotes
Include both bacteria and archaea
Coccus, spiral, or bacillus in shape
Enclosed in cell walls that are largely composed of a carbohydrate and a protein
complex called peptidoglycan
Reproduce by binary fission
Use organic chemicals for nutrition - from dead or living organisms
Many can swim using appendages called flagella
Archaea (cells walls, if present, lack peptidoglycan)
Prokaryotic cells
But cell walls lack peptidoglycan
Methanogens
Produce methane as a waste
Halophiles
Live in extremely salty environments
Thermophiles
Live in hot sulfurous water
Fungi
Eukaryotes
Distinct nucleus and surrounded by a special envelope called the nuclear
membrane
True fungi have cell walls composed of chitin
Yeast, molds, mycelia (long filaments...hyphae)
Asexual or sexual reproduction
Absorb solutions of organic material from their environment
Protozoa
Unicellular eukaryotic microbes
Move by pseudopods, flagella, or cilia
Amebae move by pseudopods
Euglena are photosynthetic
Use light as source of energy and co2 to produce sugars
Sexually or asexually
Viruses
So small only seen with electron microscope
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Core made out of only one type of nucleic acid, DNA or RNA and surrounded by
a protein coat and sometimes surrounded by a lipid envelope
Can reproduce only by using cellular machinery of other organisms
Multicellular animal parasites
Helminths
Flatworms and roundworms
Classification of microorganisms
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Protists (slime molds, protozoa, algae)
Fungi (unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds, and mushrooms)
Plants (mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants)
Animals (sponges, worms, insects, and vertebrates)
Robert Hooke
Observed a thin slice of cork through a crude microscope
Life’s smallest structural units were “little boxes” or “cells”
This started the beginning of cell theory
All living things are composed of cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
First to observe live microorganisms through the lenses of the ~400 microscopes
he made
Wrote about the “animalcules” he found
Spontaneous generation
Hypothetical process that things could just emerge from soil (toads/snakes), fries
could emerge from manure, and maggots from dead bodies
Physician Redi proved this was not true with maggots
Needham stated that even after he heated chicken broth, the cooled solutions
were still teeming with microorganisms, and Spallanzani suggested that
microorganisms from the air could have effected it
Biogenesis
Hypothesizing that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells
Louis Pasteur
Demonstrated that air itself does not create microbes, but microorganisms in the
air can contaminate sterile solutions
Showed that microorganisms can be present in non living matter - on solids,
liquids, and in the air
Demonstrated that microbial life can be destroyed by heat and that methods can
be devised to block the access of airborne microorganisms to nutrient
environments
Formed the basis of aseptic technique
The Golden Age of Microbiology
From 1857 to 1914
Superheaded by Pasteur and Robert Koch
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