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Lecture 16

BIMS 201 Lecture 16: Chromatin Remodeling

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Biomedical Science
BIMS 201
Elizabeth Crouch

Chromatin Remodeling Can control protein levels Chromatin remodeling occurs through the interaction of chemical groups with histone proteins bound to the DNA This interaction allows for some genes to be transcribed (DNA is open for binding of transcription factors) and others to be silenced (DNA is not open to transcription factors) Allows for the transcription factors to reach DNA DNA is wound around histone proteins DNA is wrapped around octamer Two copies of each of the four histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 Each is a unique histone protein Histone H1 acts like a pin to hold the octamer together Must first unwind in order to get to DNA for transcription Silence DNA By winding the protein further Compacts the DNA and nucleosomes even tighter together Several twisting Attach to a scaffolding to create a chromosome Compacting it up to 700 times original length To change availability of the DNA sequence you might change the charge of the histone proteins Histones are basic (positively charged) and DNA (acid) is negatively charged due to sugar phosphate backbone Transcription Activation Methyl groups inactivate transcription Bulky Addition of acetyl or phosphate group (negative) to the positive charged histones Repel DNA from the histones and open up strands Octamer is positively charged Acetylation is to lysine groups on H3 and H4 microRNAs
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