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PSYC 221
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Chapter 13 Dissolution and Loss 11/21/2013 I. The Prevalence of Divorce Average length of marriage in U.S. in 18 years Only half of adult population married, 25% of children have single parent homes(mother) Marriages less likely to end than other relationships but less likely to last than they used to II. Why Divorce Increased More cohabitation, more single parents, more women working=marriage no longer necessity Expectations of marriage became too high…want love and passion and no disappointments More conflict b/t work and family and more hours a wife works, the lower her marriage quality decreases in job satisfaction lead to marital discord OR expose you to alternatives the more money a woman makes, the more likely she will divorce couples with low income divorce more than couples with high income b/c causes trouble changes in gender roles leads to different allocations of household chores…husbands more unhappy b/c doing more chores but women more content less connection to community leads to divorce b/c others will stray you away from divorce… more you move around, more likely to divorce no fault laws have made divorcing easier and more relaxed view of divorce now casual cohabitation leads to less respect for marriage, less favorable outcomes for marriage, increased willingness to divorce children w/ divorced parents trust partners less so more likely to divorce III. Predictors of Divorce, Levinger’s Barrier Model attraction enhanced by rewards of relationship and decreased by relationship costs alternatives that exist lure people away barriers to staying: moral principles, legal/social pressure, financial stress barriers could be more psychological than material so they may stay together if costs of leaving are high dependence on spouse, religious barriers, children but barriers wont stop someone from doing what they want..if divorce is to happen it will IV. Karney and Bradbury’s Vulnerability-Stress Adaptation Model 1. Enduring vulnerabilities bad experiences in family, poor education, personality traits, attitude to marriage 2. Adaptive processes response to stress, can still be happy if you have mild difficulties 3. Stressful events provide support an adjust. (unemployment or pregnancy all stressors) failure to cope properly leads to marital decline Stress spillover=stress from other places is brought home and interacts with innocent partners…our adaptive processes determine how this will go Women with good communication skills, have encountered stress before are more resilient to stress of being new mother than other women who haven’t experienced much stress V. The PAIR Project Processes of Adaption in Intimate Relationships 168 married couples for ten years 35% divorced, 20% unhappy, 45% happy but still less loving than before Why?? Enduring dynamics model=spouses bring problems and incompatibilities to marriages that show during courtship…if headed for divorce, it will show in beginning Emergent distress model=behavior that destroys marriages occurs after wedding Disillusionment model=begin with romanticized ideas that are unrealistic BEST PREDICTORS OF DIVORCE ARE ENDURING DYNAMICS MODELAND DISILLUSIONMENT Short lived marriages began with less love, long lived marriages began with more loving Level of satisfaction and that change in satisfaction key players in outcome VI. Early Years of Marriage Project 174 white couples, 199 black couples in Michigan since 1986 after 16 years, 36% white couples divorced, 50% black couples divorced blacks cohabited earlier, had children before marriage, lower incomes VII. People’s Personal Perceptions of their Problems cultural context=no fault divorce laws, economic problems personal
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