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Chapter 5 Notes

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University of Miami
PSY 260

Chapter 5: Mental Model: an organized structure in memory that depicts a coherent idea in the self or an object or quality of the world ex. girl in class was unconsciously rolling her eyes when her professor talked about research – made the connection it reminded her of her work-loving father Schema: a cognitive structure in memory that organizes information about a specific topic or topics such as mothers, fathers, the self, or knowledge more generally of the world such as occupations or endangered species • Learned – broadest group of organization • Serve as a preconceived way of fitting information together Prototype: type of scheme – a list of features that collectively define a concept or object – most defining/common are listed first with progressively less-defining later ex. A car has 4 doors, a trunk etc. Self Concept: a mental model one construct’s of ones self, ex. “I am outgoing” Self Schema: a memory structure that holds information about the self Self-Esteem: how positively or negatively one feels toward one’s self Script: stereotyped sequences of events and actions that describe how to do something (ex. walk into fast food joint, join line, look at menu, order at cashier, wait) Life Story: the way a person represents the drama of his or her life (not always true, makes explanations for the bad parts – incorporates more information aside from the facts and highlights the good parts) Relationship Pattern: structures that contain procedural knowledge – knowledge about how to do something, contain information about how to act in a relationship the patterns a person uses in interacting with others – also roles, as student/partier Mental Models Characteristics: • (Mostly) learned and applied o Some may have a genetic basis (ex. Fear of snakes vs. seat belts) o Often, however = learned • Implicit Knowledge: acquired unintentionally in the course of doing or thinking about other things – learned gradually through observation/listening • Key elements may be the same • Differences from person to person reflects personality - people react differently Possible Selves • Hazel Markus o Feared self: an extreme negative version of the self that the individual fears he or she will become o Desired self: an extremely attractive positive version of the self that the individual desires to become • Higgins o Actual: how a person thinks of his/her qualities, life experience, interactions o Possible: a mental model of what one’s self might be like in the future if it were to change (or in the past, if one has been different) o Ought: a self that sets a standard for what one should live up to o Ideal: model of what one would like to become  If actual and ideal are similar = good psychological health  Actual-ought discrepancies: think they will fail to do what society wants – feel anxious  Actual-ideal discrepancies: not engaging in activities they enjoy – feel sad/depressed • Possible selves distinguish between groups with similar self-esteem but very different social profiles (ex. College students - positive, delinquents - negative) • Possible selves distinguish between groups with similar situations but different outcomes (ex. Poor versus good recovery from 2 people with death of spouse) Shadow: an unconscious model of the self that contains the attributes and qualities that a person actually possesses, but rejects at the conscious level (religious person’s shadow = their sinful side) Anima: an unconscious portion of a man’s mental models that includes feminine characteristics Animus: an unconscious portion of a man’s mental models that includes masculine characteristics • People often blocked out these thoughts when gender roles were more rigid Self-esteem: the overall positive or negative feeling one experiences towards oneself Self-efficacy: one’s self estimated ability to perform a specific task, ex. some students feel nervous about exams but fine about papers, and the reverse Redemptive sequence: a portion of a life story in which a person encounters a challenge or trauma and is then able to redeem the value of the experience – responding well to the death of a family member by realizing it made you stronger – high well-being, low depression Contamination sequence: a portion of a life story in which a person encounters an ambivalent or negative event that is seen as negatively defining one’s life – life is over after happy marriage ends in divorce – low well-being, depression Formal Models: learned through education school – rewarded in society, higher degree = more money Informal/Implicit Models: gradually learned through living and experiencing • Practical/tacit knowledge: how the world actually works Perceiving Others: • First, researchers identified adjectives highly, moderately, and not related to extroversion (and, in another condition, introversion) – people identify them as being a certain type (stereotyping) • Cantor & Mischel’s hypothesis: people will store information for “Jane” according to an “extrovert” schema • Procedure: participants learned lists describing four fictional target people (instructions: I would like you to view these slides and try to remember the personality characteristics) – Jane was extroverted – people then said she was spirited, exuberant (weren’t on the list) – based on the schema of extroversion – people learn and use prototypes to understand others Entity Theorists: those who believe there are relatively fixed parts of personality,, almost everyone is an entity theorist in part Incremental Theorists: those who believe that personality can change over time – most everyone is here, flexible responses to problems and capacity to learn Where Do Mo
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