FST10 Lecture7.doc

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University of California - Davis
Food Science & Technology
FST 10

FST 10 Lecture 7 (1/30) OH 2/4 3:30-4:30 2/5 10-11 Room 3143 RMI North Carbohydrates Major food component Starches, sugars, Fiber Early observations suggested that they looked like "hydrated carbon" H20 C Cn(H20)n "carbon hydrates" Glucose is C6H12O6 Chemical Elements: C,H,O Carbohydrates - Classification -Simple sugars -Oligosaccharides (3-10 units) -Polysaccharides(>10 units) Sugar nomenclature -Chemically, sugars can be given the suffix "-ose" Ex. sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc. Simple sugars Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose Common Disaccharides Sucrose= glucose + fructose Lactose= glucose + galactose Maltose= glucose + glucose Sucrose > 99.85% in white sugar, or table sugar Lactose: main sugar found in milk: ~4.5% cow milk, ~6.5%human milk Glycosidic Bond Linkage between 2 monosaccharide units Carbohydrates and the body Major source of energy for the body -Fuel: Glucose the primary source of energy for cells -Stored (small amounts) in the body as glycogen(polysaccharide) Simple sugars What is the first thing that comes to mind when we mention sugars? -Sweet stuff, sweetness. Sweetness - simple sugars -Differ in sweetness (taste intensity) -Sucrose is the reference sugar chosen when we evaluate the sweetness of other substances. -relative sweetness is a measure of how sweet a specific substance is in relation to sucrose. How sweet it is Relative sweetness of some sugars Sucrose 100; Lactose 20; Glucose 70; Fructose 120 Enzyme breaks the bond. Lactase split galactose, glucose Lactose and Milk consumption Many humans (after weaning) cannot digest lactose. They are lactose intolerant. Lactose Intolerance -inability to digest significant amounts of lactose -due to a shortage of lactase Common symptoms include: -Diarrhea -Nausea, abdominal cramps, bloating, gas U.S Native American 100%;African American 95%;Caucasian American 12%;Chinese 99%;Swedes 2%;Thai 98%;Africans: Bantu 98% Tutsi10% How to solve the problem Use of lactase(enzyme) -Directly in processing -Naturally with fermented dairy product
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