FST 10 Lecture 7 (1/30)
OH 2/4 3:30-4:30 2/5 10-11 Room 3143 RMI North
Major food component
Starches, sugars, Fiber
Early observations suggested that they looked like "hydrated carbon"
H20 C Cn(H20)n "carbon hydrates"
Glucose is C6H12O6
Chemical Elements: C,H,O
Carbohydrates - Classification
-Oligosaccharides (3-10 units)
-Chemically, sugars can be given the suffix "-ose"
Ex. sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc.
Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose
Sucrose= glucose + fructose
Lactose= glucose + galactose
Maltose= glucose + glucose
Sucrose > 99.85% in white sugar, or table sugar
Lactose: main sugar found in milk: ~4.5% cow milk, ~6.5%human milk
Linkage between 2 monosaccharide units
Carbohydrates and the body
Major source of energy for the body
-Fuel: Glucose the primary source of energy for cells
-Stored (small amounts) in the body as glycogen(polysaccharide)
What is the first thing that comes to mind when we mention sugars?
-Sweet stuff, sweetness.
Sweetness - simple sugars
-Differ in sweetness (taste intensity)
-Sucrose is the reference sugar chosen when we evaluate the sweetness of other substances.
-relative sweetness is a measure of how sweet a specific substance is in relation to sucrose.
How sweet it is
Relative sweetness of some sugars Sucrose 100; Lactose 20; Glucose 70; Fructose 120
Enzyme breaks the bond.
Lactase split galactose, glucose
Lactose and Milk consumption
Many humans (after weaning) cannot digest lactose. They are lactose intolerant.
-inability to digest significant amounts of lactose
-due to a shortage of lactase
Common symptoms include:
-Nausea, abdominal cramps, bloating, gas
Native American 100%;African American 95%;Caucasian American 12%;Chinese 99%;Swedes
2%;Thai 98%;Africans: Bantu 98% Tutsi10%
How to solve the problem
Use of lactase(enzyme)
-Directly in processing
-Naturally with fermented dairy product