2. The Industrial Revolution in England
A- Why England
C- Coal and Iron
3. The Industrial Revolution on the Continent
A- The Continent as a Late Bloomer
B- An Infrastructure of Change
4. Changing Social Structure
B- The Middle Class
C- The New Working Class.
Coal and Iron
Industrialization of the Continent(diff. between England)
The Middle Classes(New Class)
-Main turning point that catapults us into modern world. – overturns accepted way of doing
-Beginning around 1780 ~ 100 years long
-from rural Artisan production and Agriculture Economy to Urban, Large Scale
-Machine speeds up work and increases complexity.
-Some call is Industrious revolution
-Critic- Nothing new, not a moment of change, gradual shift.
-Outcome of Overseas exploration and small assembly lines to be expanded.
-New Tech. didn’t immidiatly replace its lesser counterpart.
-Small Leavers, as well as Factories. – Factory has better prices, Leavers need to specialize
to make what factories cannot.
- take off point for revolution
-Had combination of natural, economic resources that were at right place at right time.
-isolated, small, rich in coal, well developed canal/river system.
-Roots of Industrialization in Agriculture.
-Mid 1800 – Agriculture had been commercialized – accomplished through new crops and holding property – big company owns lane which farmers farmed, lessened farmers.
- Jobless farmers move to towns to find jobs = cheap labor.
-Had established banks. Insurance, investments, stock exchange, loans.
- New position- import cheap materials & export finished good at higher price. – many had
deals to only trade with England.
- First Innovation- Cotton industry- High terrifs kept cotton from coming in from outside(like
india) – to get more local cotton grown.
-1733- John Kay – Flying Shuttle- Sped up weaving process- but not spinning.
-1764- Spinning Jenny- Jame Hargeaves- 16x manufacturing speed of normal spinning.
-1769- Richard Arkwrites- Water Frame- Long/Lat weaving quickened to created larger cloth.
- 1779- Spinning Mule- Combined all three together to produce 6-24 times of yarn.
American contribution- 1793- Cotton Gin- separation of cotton seeds from fibers
-Beginning of 1800’s – small ebough to be found in cottage. – grew in size and placed next
to water(water powered mills)
-Steam Engine allows factories to locate away from rivers.
- Commercial centers in larger cities in North England and South Scotland grow.
-Brit. Cotton = cheap. Manufactured cloth= price drop
-Western Clothing is transformed, from wool to cotton. (cotton easier to take care)
-Poe- Lamented about english country side changed by mills(smokey)
-Working conditions- awful- tyranny of w