According to the chemiosmotic theory, an electrochemical proton gradient is used to synthesize ATP in mitochondria. The enzyme that does this is located on the inside of the mitochondrial membrane. The oxidation of carbohydrates and fats is used to pump protons outside the mitochondrial membrane until the steady-state membrane potential is -140 mV and the pH gradient ∆pH = 1.5. Inside the mitochondrion, pH = 7.0, [ATP] = 1 mM, [Pi] = 2.5 mM, [ADP] = 1 mM, and T = 298 K.

a) Howw much chemical potential is required to synthesize ATP inside mitochondria? Hint: here the question refers to the chemical potential difference between products and reactants = ∆G of the reaction ADP + Pi -> ATP.

b) How much free energy is made available by moving 1 mol of protons from the outside to the inside? Is this enough to drive ATP synthesis?

c) How many protons must be translocated per ATP synthesized?

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Patrina Schowalter
Patrina SchowalterLv2
28 Sep 2019

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