2. The free energy of ATP synthesis from ATP synthase under cellular conditions is +45 kJ/mol.

a. Where does the energy come from?

b. If the pH of the matrix is 7.84, the intermembrane space is 7.16 and the membrane potential is 0.15 V at 37 °C, how much energy can be produced from this gradient per mol of protons?

c. How many moles of protons moving across this gradient would be required to produce enough energy for one mole of ATP to be synthesized?

d. To generate a proton gradient the mitochondria use the energy of electron transport. How much energy is produced in the oxidation of NADH by oxygen (under standard biochemical conditions)?

e. Using your answer from b, how many moles of protons could be transported out of the matrix with this oxidation energy (d)?

f. How many moles of protons are actually transported in the oxidation of NADH through the ETC?

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Patrina Schowalter
Patrina SchowalterLv2
28 Sep 2019

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