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Biology 2

BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Allantoin, Amniote, Osmoregulation
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OSMOREGULATION - Balancing the uptake of water and solutes OSMOCONFORMERS: - Do not adjust internal concentration OSMOREGULATORS: - Use energy to adjust internal concentration NITROGENOUS WASTE: - Formed from protein break...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Veterinary Virology, Non-Cellular Life, Archaea
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VIRUSES - Acellular, non-living - Unique class of infectious agent - Obligate intracellular parasites - Lack complete enzyme systems - Replicate inside cells using host cell factors - Infect bacteria, archaea, plants, fung...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Scurvy, Chemical Energy, Phospholipid
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DIGESTION AND NUTRITION - Different organisms have different dietary requirements - May eat plant material, animal material, or plantanimal fluids - In humans, most nutrition is required for protein and lipids - Food is re...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cellular Respiration, Activation Energy, Catalase
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METABOLISM - Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism - Occurs at about 40 efficiency - Involves regulation of heat, water, salts, glucose, pH, etc. - Chemical energy is ingested o Fecal loss - Chemical energy is obsor...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: T-Tubule, Insect Flight, Bivalvia
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MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Muscle Functions: - Posture - Movement - Peristalsis - Heat and electricity generation - Sound productions - Internal organ function Functional characteristics: - Contractibility - Excitability - Ext...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Axon Hillock, Motor Neuron, Interneuron
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NERVOUS SYSTEM Components: - Neurons: cells that conduct information via electrochemical signals - Glia: supporting cells that provide structure, protection and insulation to neurons, and are involved in metabolism - Glia ...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Embryonic Diapause, Acrosome, Polyspermy
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ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT - Determined by the genome of the zygote and differences that arise between early embryonic cells FERTILISATION: - Brings together the haploid nuclei of sperm and egg together to form a diploid zygote - ...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Secondary Sex Characteristic, Posterior Pituitary, Neurohormone
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ENDOCRINE CONTROL ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: - Comprises all of an animals hormone-secreting cells - Coordinates slower, long-lasting responses to stimuli in comparison to the nervous system - Regulates long-term developmental proc...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Thermoregulation, Poikilotherm, Countercurrent Exchange
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BODY TEMPERATURE - Animal body temperatures limited from 0-50 degrees - Environmental temperature range is much greater - Animals must therefore conform or regulate - Strategy determines survival range - Higher temp increa...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Species Problem
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BEHAVIOUR - Typically concerns movement - Results from a response to an internal or external stimulus - The nervous systems response to a stimulus carried out by the muscular or hormonal system - Subject to natural selecti...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pattern Recognition Receptor, Natural Killer Cell, Tlr5
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IMMUNOLOGY - The study of the immune system First Line of Defence: - Natural or physical barriers - Aims to keep out pathogens - E.g: o Skin: physical barrier o Lysozymes in tears o Mucus in respiratory tract o Cilia o Low...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ecological Niche, Doubling Time, Commensalism
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MICROBIOLOGY - The study of microorganisms - Uses integrative approaches to study how bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi cause disease MICROBES: - <1 of all microbes cause disease - Have major impacts on human health -...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Open Reading Frame, Tata Box, Start Codon
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MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TRANSCRIPTION - The DNA directed synthesis of RNA - RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region before the gene - DNA begins to unwind - RNA polymerase moves along the template strand from 3 to 5, elongat...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Final Guide: Globular Protein, Microfilament, Flagellum

Cilia and Flagella  Microtubules are responsible for the beating of the flagella and cilia.  Sperm of animals, algae, and some plants have flagella.  Unicellular eukaryotes are moved through the water by...

Biology
BIO1022
Various
BIO1022 Study Guide - Spindle Apparatus, Sister Chromatids, Cell Cycle

CELL DIVISION Cellular organisation of the genetic material  Genome – a cell’s genetic information.  A prokaryotic genome is often a long DNA molecule.  An eukaryotic genome usually has a number of DNA ...

Biology
BIO1022
Various

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