Sample Question - Section A
Identify four conditions or events that potentially weaken an organisation’s dominant culture.
Seniors managers lack transformational leadership skills, lack consistency, or have high
The organisation has culturally inconsistent rewards.
Rapid expansion or high turnover - it takes times to learn organisation culture and long
standing employees are the richest in information
Strength of organisational culture depends on social interaction, so policies and procedures
that discourage social interaction weaken culture.
The organisation does not select and socialise new employees. They should hire employees
that share the same values, they will role conflict if they don't.
Sample Question - Section B
Comment on the accuracy of the following statement and explain your answer. ‘Organisations with
strong corporate cultures are more effective than organizations with weak corporate cultures.’
Define organisational culture
Discuss and define strong and weak organisational culture
Firms with dominant values must be compatible with external environment
Strong organisations culture can diminish if it becomes too strong that employees are
unable to break out of the dominant mental model
Can also diminish if culture becomes too strong that dissenting values are suppressed.
Session 8 - Leadership
Perspectives of Leadership:
Competency - great leaders are born, personal characteristics. Limitations - implies a
universal approach, alternative combinations might work, assumes leadership is within a
person, competencies refer to leadership potential not performance.
1. Emotional Intelligence
4. Leadership Motivation
7. Knowledge of Business
o EMERGING VIEW IS COMPETANCY BASED REWARDS
Behavioural - people orientated or task orientated. Both have been found to have positive
effects on performance and satisfaction. Limitations - assumes best leaders display a high
level of both people and task, but best style seems to depend on situation.
Contingency - the effect of a leaders behaviour is contingent upon situational factors
o Hersey & Blanchard Situational Model
assumes leaders can and should change their style to fit their followes'
degree of readiness. Therefore it is possible to train leaders to better fit
their style to their followers. o Path-Goal Leadership
Path = employee expectancies
Goal = employee performance
States that effect leaders ensure that employees who perform their jobs
well receive more valued rewards than those who perform poorly
Transformational - some leadership models say charismatic leadership is essential for
transformational leadership. Emerging view - charisma differs from transformational
leadership. Transformational leadership is a set of behaviours to bring about change.
Transformational leadership is important. Limitations - it is a universal theory
o Build commitment to the vision
o Develop a strategic vision
o Model the vision
o Communicate the vision
Implicit Leadership - follower perceptions of characteristics of effective leaders
o Leadership prototypes
o Romance of leadership effect
Session 9 - Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management is the management of information, knowledge and experience available to
an organisation in order that organisational activities build on what is already known and extend it
reduction of duplication and time searching for information
wider application of organisational knowledge base
reduction of pressure to do more with limited resources
improved organisational communication and participation
Knowledge Management came from:
1. Globalization - pressure on what do we know, who knows it and what don't we know that
2. Ubiquitous Computing - premium value on knowledge that cannot be digitalized, codified or
3. Knowledge-Centric View of the Firm - firm's main building blocks of capability is knowledge
Intellectual Capital - knowledge residing in the organisation:
Human - knowledge that people possess or generate
Social - knowledge, trust and norms of reciprocity in one's social network
Structural - knowledge captured in systems and structures
Relationship - values derives from satisfied customers, suppliers etc
Explicit Knowledge - can be organised and communicated for one person to another
Tacit Knowledge - subtle information acquired through observation and experience, can't be
Tacit knowledge is more important that explicit knowledge for competitive advantage.
The economic significance of tacit knowledge is derived from barriers to transferability.
Knowledge Creation Process
Socialisation - tacit to tacit (EG. working side by side)
Externalisation - tacit to explicit (EG. new knowledge is suppressed in a way it can be shared)
Combination - explicit to explicit (EG. integrate what we already know and capture it in
policy and procedures)
Internalisation - explicit to tacit (EG. new learning becomes a pattern in your repertoire,
taken for granted. Three level of trust
1. Calculus Based - based on deterrence
2. Identification Based - based on common mental models and values
3. Knowledge Based - based on predictability and competence, develops over time
Session 10 - Ethics
Ethics are accepted principles of right or wrong that govern the conduct of a person, the actions of
an organisation or members of a profession.
Business Ethics are the accepted principles of right or wrong governing the conduct of business