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University of South Australia
CHEM 1007

Chemistry 101 Functional groups: Alkene Alkyne Arene Alkyl Halide Alcohol Either Amine Amide Thiol Aldehyde Ketone Carboxylic acid Ester Acid Halide Hydrocarbons: -contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms 1. Alkanes - Contains only single bonds. - Saturated because they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible. -Have suffix -ane. -more than 1 same alkyl group will have prefix (bi-, tri-, tetra-) number prefix 1 Meth- 2 Eth- 3 Prop- 4 But- 5 Pent- 6 Hex- 7 Hept- 8 Oct- 9 Non- 10 Dec- Alkyl groups (R group) -Have suffix-yl and they come before the alkane in alphabetic order. -Branched chained alkanes have prefix iso- -Secondary carbons have a prefix sec- -Tertiary carbons have a prefix tert- Formulas: Molecular formulas: CHnCHnCH n Skeletal formulas: all atoms and functional groups are shown except carbon and hydrogen. Isopropyl: Isobutyl: Sec-butyl: Tert-butyl: Constitutional isomers: -molecules have the same molecular formula but different connectivity and different names. Example: C6H 14 Hexane 3-methylpentane 2-methylpentane 2-2 dimethylbutane Naming: Step 1: find the parent hydrocarbon (longest hydrocarbon chain) Step 2: number the atoms in the parent chain Step 3: identify and number the substituents Step4: write name as single words. Conformations -The different spatial arrangement of the atoms that result from the rotation occurs around carbon- carbon single bonds. Newman projections A) Eclipsed conformation B) Staggered conformation : Highest energy lowest energy Least stable
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