-contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms
- Contains only single bonds.
- Saturated because they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible.
-Have suffix -ane.
-more than 1 same alkyl group will have prefix (bi-, tri-, tetra-) number prefix
Alkyl groups (R group)
-Have suffix-yl and they come before the alkane in alphabetic order.
-Branched chained alkanes have prefix iso-
-Secondary carbons have a prefix sec-
-Tertiary carbons have a prefix tert-
Molecular formulas: CHnCHnCH n
Skeletal formulas: all atoms and functional groups are shown except carbon and hydrogen.
Isopropyl: Isobutyl: Sec-butyl: Tert-butyl:
-molecules have the same molecular formula but different connectivity and different names.
Example: C6H 14
Hexane 3-methylpentane 2-methylpentane 2-2 dimethylbutane Naming:
Step 1: find the parent hydrocarbon (longest hydrocarbon chain)
Step 2: number the atoms in the parent chain
Step 3: identify and number the substituents
Step4: write name as single words.
-The different spatial arrangement of the atoms that result from the rotation occurs around carbon-
carbon single bonds.
A) Eclipsed conformation B) Staggered conformation
Highest energy lowest energy