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CHYS 2P10 Final: CHYS 2P10 Final Exam

15 Pages

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Anthony Volk

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CHYS 2P10 Final Exam Chapter 8- Intelligence Early Binet-Simon Test  Mental age  To determine intelligence, they examined items correlated with high teacher ratings  Developed the Binet-Simon test of intelligence, gave a score of the child’s mental level IQ  Modified in the USA to become the Stanford-Binet test  IQ is child’s mental age divided by their physical age  Adult version is WAIS-III and child version is WISC-III General Intelligence  Sir Francis Gelton believed intelligence was based on biological differences  He attempted to determine if there was a link between intelligence and the speed of sensory processes, no significant correlation Spearman’s g  Charles Spearman developed factor analysis to determine if there was a general intelligence that underlays performance in the Binet tests  2 factors influence test performance: general intelligence (g) and specific intelligence (s) Specific vs. General Intelligence  Specific intelligence refers to skills that apply directly to the problem being solved  General intelligence correlates positively with the results of all the tests Fluid and Crystal g  Cattell developed this idea by breaking g into g fgeneral fluid intelligence) and g c (general crystal intelligence)  Fluid intelligence can be adapted to any use  Crystallized intelligence refers to previous experiences  Fluid intelligence is most helpful in unfamiliar testing situations  Fluid: peaks early 20s  Crystallized: peaks at 50 What is g?  Mental speed and working memory  Individuals with high IQ scores have faster sensory perception (fluid g) and greater span of working memory  Overall ability to quickly process information in the conscious mind is related to (fluid) intelligence Intelligence Consists of:  A general ability factor  Specialized ability factors  Carroll’s three-stratum theory of intelligence Information-Processing Perspective  Sternberg’s triarchic theory: context, experience, information-processing skills Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence  At least 7 kinds of intelligence  Independent of each other  Linguistic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, etc. How is Intelligence Measured?  Young children can’t take IQ tests- lack the required verbal or written skills  The Bayley Scales of Infant Development o 2-30 months o Motor and mental scale o Behavioural record How Stable Are IQ Scores Across Childhood?  Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at 18  Many children show fluctuations  Environment is important What Do IQ Scores Predict?  Scholastic achievement  Vocational outcome (occupation and higher education)  The gifted (130-150+)  The mentally delayed (below 70) Factors that Influence IQ  Evidence for heredity o Twin studies: identical twins are correlated more than fraternal twins o Adoption studies: adopted children’s IQs resemble biological parents more than adopted parents  Evidence for environment o The Flynn effect o Adoption studies: adoption to more advantaged families and IQ What are there racial, ethnic and social class differences in IQ?  Motivational factors o Tend to not try as hard when feeling racially inadequate in formal testing situations o Negative stereotypes  Genetic hypothesis o IQ differences are heredity  Environmental hypothesis o Some environments are move conducive to intellectual growth than others o Low income families may be particularly at risk: malnourishment, caregivers under stress, fewer age appropriate books and toys Social and Cultural Correlates  Mother did not complete high school  Family has 4+ children  Father is absent  Family experienced many stresses  Parents have rigid child rearing values  Mother has poor mental health How Do Children Learn?  Large brains and lengthy childhood are evidence that children are built to learn  Much of our historical learning involved observation and imitation instead of teaching and instruction Formal Schooling  A civilized invention that dates back thousands of years  Majority of the time it was only for wealthy boys  Modern schooling is very new and was initially resisted by parents Primary and Secondary Abilities  Reading is unlike language acquisition; it is not intuitive and requires significant effort  Primary abilities- evolved through natural selection, acquired by children in all environments, intrinsic motivation, expert proficiency  Secondary abilities- culturally dependent, requires explicit instruction, not intrinsically motivated, expert proficiency is rare Learning to Read  Emergent literacy- the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are the precursors of conventional reading and writing  Phonetic awareness  Role of parents  Phonological encoding requires the brain to process visual signals into auditory signals, best predictor of reading disabilities  Difficulty processing sounds leads to difficulty learning to read  Related to orthography (link between visual symbols and sounds)  Dyslexia- difficulty in learning to read despite an average intelligence  Boys are more likely to have reading disabilities  Sex differences: reading viewed as stereotypically feminine, differences in brain structure or function  Two approaches to teaching reading: phonetic method & whole language approach  Matthew effect- good readers are more likely to be good writers Chapter 15- Sexual Development Defining Sex and Gender  Sex- a person’s biological identity  Gender- a person’s social and cultural identity Evolution and Sex  Two sexes do not have the same reproductive interests  Can lead to divergent evolutionary adaptations, as each sex seeks to maximize its reproductive fitness  Men have the biological capacity to have more offspring HEXACO Personality Traits  Men and women have different average levels of personality traits  Honest-Humility: consumption with competition (women)  Emotionality: trait most associated with parenting (women)  Extraversion: outgoing (no gender differences)  Agreeableness: anger and patience (no gender differences)  Conscientiousness: getting work done (women)  Openness to Experience: women are less open to novel experiences that may be dangerous  Women are the primary caregivers in every society; reason for sex differences Sex, Evolution and Gender Differences  Parental Investment Theory- trade off between investing time and resources in parenting and mating lead to sex specific strategies  Misconceptions relating to evolution of male and female choices: o Males and females are coldly conscious when making mating decisions o Sex differences are natural and should be promoted o The only purpose of sex is reproduction Other Sex Differences  Verbal ability  Visual/spatial abilities  Aggression Cultural Influence  Culture is a means of refining underlying patterns  Can be strong (Saudi Arabia) or weak effect (San Francisco) Choice of Playmates and Toys  Young children tend to prefer to play with children of their own sex  Persistent, cross-cultural preferences suggest some biological influence Factors Influencing Pubertal Timing  Puberty being hit at younger ages than previously  Increased health and nutrition are the largest contributors for puberty at younger ages  Menstruation and adult height stunted by poor nutrition Adolescence, Puberty and Sexual Development  Female pubertal maturation affected by: o Rearing environment o Socioemotional stress o Maternal relationship o Relationship with father  Early maturing girls experience more emotional and behavioural problems, more likely to use tobacco  Early maturing boys experience positive and negative outcomes of their development, may benefit from having additional time to develop social and intellectual skills Money and Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory of Gender Identity  Began as female embryo’s  Expression as hormones creates male babies The Development of Gender Identity and Cognition  Gender operates at the macrosystem level; identity involves 4 dimensions 1. Knowledge of membership in gender category 2. Gender typicality 3. Pressure for gender conformity 4. Attitudes toward gender groups Biological Perspective of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity  Prenatal and adolescent hormones and experiences during childhood determine one’s sexual identity  Erotic orientation is determined by sex hormones produced at puberty  Rates and expression of homosexuality varies depending on location Male Homosexuality  More biological older brothers  By-product of maternal immune system  Disruption of 2 trimester masculinization Asexuality  No feelings of sexual attraction, romantic feelings may exist  0.5-1% of adult population  More common in women, shorter individuals, minorities and lower education; suggesting biological and environmental causes Male Adolescent Sexual Preferences  More partners, casual sex  More thoughts and urges about sex Chapter 10- Social Development Theory of Mind  Understanding that human action is motivated by underlying mental states  Social development: moral judgments, empathy, conduct disorder  Cognitive development: reasoning about representations, false beliefs Dissociation in Development  Beliefs and photographs develop between 3-4 years but…  Performance is not typically correlated  Training one on one does not affect performance  Autism: bad in false beliefs, ok in false photographs IQ and Animacy  Inanimate objects representing theory of mind in tasks  Can be impaired in autistic individuals  ToM reasoning is domain specific  Can be impaired by injury or abnormal development Chinese Preschoolers  Possible advanced emergence of frontal functioning  Better and inhibiting themselves than American children  No cross cultural differences in ToM Role of Experience- Why Chinese do not outperform US on ToM  Siblings o Number of older siblings predicts emergence of ToM  Parent-Child Conversations o Talk about mental states promotes ToM development  General Summary o Maturation and experience play crucial roles in ToM development 6 Basic (innate) Emotions in Infancy 1. Joy (Happiness) o Endogenous smiles appear in newborns o Typically during sleep when brain activity levels are low o Duchenne smiles are genuine social smiles, 1 month o Social smiling is influenced by cognitive development o Smiles and laughter become increasingly selective with age, 8 months 2. Surprise o Not observable until infants form cognitive expectations o Accompanied by physiological responses: heightened sensory sensitivity, fight or flight response o Typically a startle reflex- tensing of the body 3. Anger o Early months, anger is secondary to pain and distress signals o Changes with age with anger becoming the dominant signal o Directed towards events that the infants can control 4. Sadness o Emerges around 3 months o Motivates withdrawal from a situation and solicits care o Reduces bodily activity 5. Disgust o Originally a food oriented behaviour o 2-3 years, also associated with undesirable social behaviours 6. Fear o Emerges around 3 months o Triggered by intense social or evolutionarily relevant stimuli o Provokes a withdrawal response Emotional Development  Self-conscious emotions: embarrassment, envy, empathy, pride, guilt, shame  Emotional display rules: suppress and express  Emotional regulation: harder for boys, behaviour and language is important Temperament  Stable biological predisposition for behaving a certain way  Thomas and Chess temperament types: o Easy: generally positive mood, quick to adapt, regular routines o Difficult: reacts negatively, slow to adapt, irregular routines o Slow to Warm Up: reacts midly negative, slow to adapt, low activity level o None Classified: blends the above  Rothbart and Bates Dimensions: fearful distress, irritable distress, positive effect, activity level
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