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Child and Youth Studies
Anthony Volk

CHYS 2P10 1 Child and Youth Development: Final Exam Study Notes Week 7: Intelligence and School Achievement Chapter 10 Intelligence: the ability to think and act in ways that are goal-directed and adaptive Psychometric Approach: an approach to cognition that assumes that intelligence and other cognitive abilities can be described in terms of a series of mental factors, then, in turn, can be assessed by standardized tests Factors: in psychometric approaches to intelligence, a set of related mental skills (such as verbal or spatial skills) that underlies intellectual functioning Positive Manifold: the high correlations among scores on sets of cognitive tests that have little in common with one another in terms of content or types of strategies used General Intelligence (g): in psychometric theory, the idea that intelligence can be expressed in terms of a single factor, called g Fluid Abilities: intellectual abilities that are biologically determined and reflected in tests of memory span and spatial thinking Crystalized Abilities: intellectual abilities that develop from cultural context and learning experience Hierarchical Model of Cognitive Abilities: the model that proposes that intelligence is composed of specific cognitive abilities (for example – verbal, spatial, speed of processing, memory) that are intercorrelated and influenced by a higher-order general intellectual factor, g IQ Test: tests whose main purpose is to provide an index (intelligence quotient) that quantifies intelligence level Wechsler Scales: individually administered IQ tests, including the Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) for children 2 to 7 years old, the WISC for children 6 to 16 years old, and the Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for adults Stanford-Binet: an individually administered IQ test for people two years to adulthood Stereotype Threat: phenomenon in which minority member perform worse on IQ or other tests after being reminded of the negative stereotype concerning their groups’ performance on such tests Pygmalion Effect: a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which a person internalizes the expectations of an authority figure Flynn Effect: the systematic increase in IQ scores (about 5 to 9 points per decade) observed over the twentieth century Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Sternberg’s theory that describes intelligence in terms of three subtheories of intelligence: contextual, experiential, and componential Componential Subtheory (Analytic Intelligence): in Sternberg’s triarchic theory, an information-processing model describing a type of intelligence that includes three types of components: knowledge acquisition, performance, and metacomponents Experiential Subtheory (Creative Intelligence): in Sternberg’s triarchic theory, a type of intelligence concerned with how prior knowledge influences performance, specifically with the individual’ ability to deal with novelty and the degree to which processing is automatized Contextual Subtheory (Practical Intelligence): in Sternberg’s triarchic theory, a type of intelligence expressed by the idea that intelligence must be viewed in terms of the context in which it occurs; essentially “street smarts” Adaptation in Sternberg’s Theory: adjusting one’s behaviour to obtain a good fit with one’s environment Selection: in Sternberg’s theory of triarchic intelligence, the selection of environments in which to interact Shaping: in Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the ability to modify, or shape, the behaviours of others Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s theory postulating eight components, or modules, of intelligence: (1) linguistic, (2) logical-mathematical, (3) musical, (4) spatial, (5) bodily-kinesthetic, (6) interpersonal, (7) intrapersonal, and (8) naturalistic Savants (Savant Syndrome): individuals who show some type of genius, usually in a single area, but also display some form of mental disability in the rest Prodigy: a child with generally typical abilities in all but a small number of areas (usually one), in which he or she displays precocious talent Cumulative Deficit Effect: the phenomenon by which multiple risks persisting over many years add up, resulting in children who display deficits in social, emotional, and cognitive functioning Compensatory Education Programs: programs designed to provide preschool children from low-income homes with the intellectual skills necessary to perform well in primary school Biologically Secondary Abilities: cognitive abilities that build on biologically primary abilities but are principally cultural inventions, and often-tedious repetition and external motivation are necessary for their mastery, such as reading Biologically Primary Abilities: cognitive abilities that have been selected for evolution and are acquired universally, and children typically have high motivation to perform tasks involving them, such as language Matthew Effect: the phenomenon in which the difference between good and poor readers (or other cognitive abilities) increases over time Emergent Literacy: the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are presumed to be developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing during early childhood and the environments that support these developments Phonemic Awareness: the knowledge that words consist of separable sounds Phonics: reading instruction method based on learning letter-sound correspondence Phonological Recoding: reading skills used to translate written symbols into sounds and words Dyslexia: difficulty in learning to read despite having an average level of intelligence and good educational opportunities CHYS 2P10 3 Whole-Language Approach: a top-down approach to teaching reading that emphasizes the reader’s active construction of meaning Sum Strategy: an addition strategy used by young children that involves counting together the two addends (that is, one after the other) of a problem Min Strategy: an arithmetic strategy in which children faced with an addition problem start with the largest addend and count up from there Fact Retrieval: the retrieval of a fact directly from long-term memory without using effortful procedures Week 8: Sexual Development Chapter 15 (pg. 614-643) & Chapter 4 (pg.152-158) Sexuality: an individual’s erotic thoughts and activities Gender Identity: the ability of children to identify themselves as either boys or girls R Strategies: a reproductive strategy in which many offspring are produced with minimal investment or nurturing K Strategies: a reproductive strategy in which few offspring are produced but each requires substantial investment in terms of resources or nurturing Parental Investment Theory: theory coming from evolutionary biology that predicts differences in behaviours between males and females as a function of how much each invests in mating versus parenting Incest Avoidance: avoiding having sex with a close relative Westermarck Effect: the phenomenon that people who cohabitate with one another from early in childhood rarely every find one another sexually attractive regardless of their genetic relationship Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): a condition in which a fetus is exposed to excessive levels of androgen; in females this can result in greater male-stereotyped behaviours Biosocial Theory of Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation: the theory that prenatal and adolescent hormones, in addition to experiences during childhood, determine one’s sexual identity Sexual-Minority Youth: youth whose sexual orientation is not heterosexual Puberty: period in life in which children attain adult size and physical characteristics, including sexual maturity Primary Sexual Characteristics: characteristics associated directly with reproduction, such as maturation of the gonads and anatomy of the genitals Secondary Sexual Characteristics: physical characteristics developed in puberty that signal sexual maturity but are not directly related to changes in reproductive organs (for example – pubic and underarm hair, breasts in girls, changes in the voice and shape of the face in boys) Adrenarche: the onset of androgen production by the adrenal glands Growth Spurt: rapid change in growth of body occurring during puberty, which typically begins earlier in girls than boys Spermarche: a male’s first ejaculation Menarche: a woman’s first menstrual period Week 9: Social Development Chapter 11 & Chapter 7 (pg. 285-300) Emotion: the subjective reaction that we experience in response to some environmental stimulus Discrete Emotion Theory: the theory that basic emotions are innate and associated with distinctive bodily and facial reactions Functionalist Perspective: regarding emotional development, a theoretical perspective that views emotions as playing an adaptive role, helping individuals to achieve specific goals related to survival Emotional Expression: the individual’s ability to exhibit a range of emotions Emotional Recognition: the ability to recognize or become aware of emotions in others Emotional Understanding: the ability to verbally label and comprehend the use of emotions in oneself and others Emotional Self-Regulation: the ability to control one’s own emotional expressions Primary Emotions: emotions that emerge during the first year of life, including distress, disgust, interest, surprise, contentment, joy, anger, sadness, and fear Secondary (Self-Conscious) Emotions: emotions that emerge during the second year of life or later, including shame, embarrassment, coyness, shyness, empathy, guilt, jealousy, envy, pride, and contempt Endogenous Smile: smiles that are elicited by an infant’s internal states, as opposed to something in the external environment Social Smiling: smiling in response to social events Prepared Learning: the idea that animals (including humans) are “prepared” by natural selection to attend to and acquire some things more readily than others Empathy: the ability to recognize, perceive, and feel the emotions of another Contagious Crying: crying that occurs when newborns cry in response to the cries of other newborns Social Referencing: an infant’s use of another person’s emotional cues to interpret an ambiguous or uncertain event Infant-Directed Speech: the specialized register of speech that adults and older children use when talking specifically to infants and young children Emotional Autonomy: in adolescence, increases in a subjective sense of independence, especially in relation to parents or parental figures Internalizing Problems: emotional problems that affect the people who experience them (they “internalize” their problems, or turn inward), and include anxiety disorders (phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive- compulsive disorder), depression, and eating disorders, among others CHYS 2P10 5 Externalizing Problems: emotional problems reflected by “acting out,” such that one’s behaviour adversely affects other people Oppositional Defiant Disorder: a type of externalizing problem in childhood that is characterized by a pattern of defiant, uncooperative, and hostile behaviour toward adults (particularly at home and school) that interferes with a child’s daily functioning Conduct Disorder: form of externalizing problem characterized by different types of antisocial behaviours, such as physical and verbal aggression, vandalism, and theft Depression: a modification in mood consisting of one or more of three components: feelings of sadness, a sense of unease (dysphoria), or loss of a sense of pleasure (anhedonia) Cortisol: one of several hormones and biochemical associated with people’s ability to regulate aspects of their physiology and behaviour in response to stress Temperament: the term that developmental psychologists use to refer to “personality” in infants and young children Biological Sensitivity to Context: degree to which individuals are biologically sensitive to environmental contexts Easy Babies: infants described as having regular patterns of eating, sleeping, and toileting; they easily adjust to new situations and have a generally positive mood; they are eager to approach objects and people, and react to events with low to moderate levels of intensity Difficult Babies: infants described as being unpredictable, having generally negative moods, difficulty, adjusting to new situations, and react to events with high levels of intensity Slow-To-Warm-Up Babies: infants described as having a slow pattern of reaction; they have a difficult time adapting to new situations, show a tendency to withdraw in novel situations, and are generally low in activity Negative emotionality: a dimension of temperament linked to anger/irritability, fearfulness, and sadness Surgency (Extraversion): a dimension of temperament related to positive affect and activity, reflected in high activity levels, smiling and laughter, and high-intensity expression of pleasure Orienting/Regulation: a dimension of temperament that is associated with effortful control in early childhood, which is linked to the capacity to inhibit a dominant response and reorient attention to another goal Effortful Control: in temperament theory, the ability to regulate one’s emotions; effortful control is
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