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Child and Youth Studies
Anthony Volk

CHYS 2P10 December 9 2013: 118 MC questions (Definitions and application are important) EXAM PREP: Notes on second half of the material: Lecture 6: (intelligence) - Intelligence: how people act and think (mental activities) that are necessary for adaptation and shaping their environment - Psychometric Approach: describes intelligence as a trait, factor, or mental ability that the individual has to offer - The most general factor: g factor (general intelligence) - General intelligence includes: verbal, spatial, speed of processing, and memory (all these contribute to how high a person’s IQ level is) - Researched and founded by Charles Spearmen (1940-1950’s) - Dominant mechanism that influences the task - 2 main factors of g-factor (fluid abilities): - 1. Fluid g: learn new things, biologically determined - 2. Crystal g: previous knowledge, experience dependent, peaks at age 50, has a broader range - Both of these are influenced by: mental speed (short term) (how fast can think) and working memory: how well your ideas are in detail (long term) - Ex: mental speed would be how witty and good a person can make come backs when talking to others, or teasing someone, where the working memory could be after those situations the person thinks of something awesome they should of said! - Second term Spearmen measured was specific intelligence: - This is unique abilities/skills that are included and required during a test - Ex: one test: 10apples-5apples, where a test that uses specific intelligence could include: having 10 apples, take 1 away, 1 had a worm in it, 2 were eaten, an one dropped, how many left? - Mental ages: person’s mental ability expressed as an age - For every person (IQ level): IQ-age= mental age - IQ: intelligence quotient: measures how smart people are - How to measure IQ: - Standard Alfred Binet intelligence scale: (estimate) - IQ= age divided by 100 - This is measured by deviation: - This is based on a normal curve with an average of 100, and SD (standard deviation) of 15 (numbers on graph go up by 15: 60-130) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 autism below average average above average genius - The graph shows: autism of kids with disabilities with an IQ of around 60, below average = 85, average = 100, above average = 115, and geniuses = 130+ (1 in 50 = gifted) (other 98% are below that) - Sir Francis Gelton’s Theory: intelligence is based upon biological differences - There were too many errors with his data (no correlations) - No one could duplicate his work - Gardener’s Theory on multiple intelligence: - Possible 7 or 8 different types of independent intelligences that people can accel at at different rates - Ex: Comparing Wayne Gretsky’s hockey (bodily kinesthetic) skills to how good he is in math (logical skills) - Linguistic - language - spatial - art, drawing, painting - logical - math - rhythmic - music - bodily kinesthetic - hands on approach - intrapersonal - yourself - interpersonal - social - naturalist - relate to surroundings - spiritualist - views of life (existence) - Bayley scales of Infant development: 2-30 month year olds - Looks at motor and mental behaviours - Scores determine child’s performance with norms (average) - Idea of how child will turn out (how smart) - Flynn Effect: th - IQ increases over time (20 century) - Us vs. our grandparents - Not increase in knowledge/smarts but biology has increased over time since the past - From balanced nutrition, health, education, opportunities, environments, knowledge of improvements, experiences, and learning from past mistakes - Social/Cultural correlations: - Environments/homes - Parents background/education - Parent absent - Low SES - Stresses on family (depression, anxiety) - Low income - Health issues - Languages (ex: Chinese symbols: allows for faster development or other cultures) - These all can correlate to contributing to an decrease in IQ scores - 3 R’s acquiring academic skills: - 1. READING: - Phonics (sounds) - Building blocks (emergent literacy) - Phonological recordings (symbols) - Bad reading skills = dyslexia (more common in boys) - Orthography: shallow vs. deep standards on language - Ex: English = deep harder to learn (hard to sound out some words), shallow ex: Italian and French (easier to learn) - 2 basic approaches of reading: - 1. Phonic method (sounding out words) (bottom up) - 2. Whole language approach (knowing meanings of words so sentence makes sense) (top down) - Most effective = knowing the 2 types combined (smartest) - Mathew Effect: good and poor readers difference/ increase over time - 2. WRITING: - Good readers are usually good writers - Styles of writing vary with culture - Start with letter and sound correspondence (auditory) - Then learn punctuations, and spelling, and grammar - ARITHMATIC: - Includes 3 main strategies: - 1. Sum strategy: counting on fingers, slow - 2. Min strategy: adding numbers (bigger) - 3. Fact retrieval: memory based (know 2+2=4) - Pygmalion effect: teachers expectations for their students accomplishments and IQ scores - IQ is stable over childhood and young adults (changes as get older) - Sternberg: triachic theory of intelligence: - Has 3 subthemes: - 1. Componential: (analytic) break down problems - 2. Experimental: (creative)solving tasks, task performed and changes made - 3. Contextual: (practical) adopting - All based on experiences and environments impacts on a person (how they change to it) - Intelligence is evaluated in environments (where a person lives) by 3 processes: - 1. Adapting - 2. Selecting - 3. Shaping - All 3 are done throughout the subthemes of his theory above - These determines a person’s street smarts/street intelligence and how an individual fits into an environment - Cumulative deficit effect: - Multiple risks over many years effect social, emotional, and cognitive functions - Risks : impairment, and academic failure - Compensatory education programs: where at risks kids can attend to help gain and improve their overall IQ levels - Sex differences in mathematics: males are favourite (stereotype: masculine activity) - Positive manifold: high correlations with IQ scores Lecture 7: (Sex and Gender) - Sex: person’s biological identity (what they look like) - Gender: person’s social/cultural identity (who they are) - K strategy: reproducing offspring with investment/nurturing - R strategy: reproducing offspring with no support or anything - Parental investment theory: female vs. male with difference in how much they invest in mating vs. parenting - Factors affecting puberty: - Increase in health/nutrition = faster getting period but natural/good - 3 factors affecting increase in puberty: - 1. SES status low - 2. Mother relation - 3. Father relation (absent) - 2 dependent pathways: Textbook pg 156 - Type 1 - - Type 2 - Marital discord - Family context - Spousal harmony - High stress - Adequate financial - Inadequate financial resources resources - Harsh, rejecting, - Children infancy/ - Sensitive supportive insensitive, inconsistent early childhood responsive positively affectionate - Insecure - Psychological/ - Secure attachment attachment mistrustful behavioural development trusting internal wrking internal working model model reciprocally oppertunistis interpersonal rewarding interpersonal orientation aggressive and orientation anxious - Early - Somatic - Later maturing/puberty development maturing/puberty - Earlier sexual - Reproductive - Later sexual activity activity short term unstable strategy long term enduring pair pair bonds limited parental bonds greater parental investment investment - Early maturing girls = increase emotional and behavioural problems (increase age for having sex drinking and drugs) - Early maturing boys = better social/intellectual skills (don’t worry/focus on puberty/changes happening to them when they are older= more stressful) - 2 types of sexes: - 1. Asexual: no attraction - 2. Sexual: have physical attraction to someone else - Polyandry: women with more than one husband - Polygamy: men with more than one wife (think Mormon religion) - Monogyny: 1 wife, 1 husband - CRAZY WOMEN: Mrs. Vassilyeun, success: had 69 children with only 27 pregnancies (16sets: 7 triplets, and 4 quadruplets) - CRAZY MEN: men’s success: 16 million kids (Genghis Khan) competition = mind set - Big 5 personality traits: - 1. Neuroticism (worrying) - 2.Extroversion vs. Introversion (outgoing vs. reserved) - 3. Openness to experiences vs. unopenness (risk takers and non risk takers) - 4. Agreeableness vs. antagonism (happy/easy going vs. angry, 1 way or the highway) - 5. Conscientious vs. undirectedness (having control vs. having none) - Women are more agreeable then men = more antagonists - Stages of gender stereotyping: - 1. 0-2 ½ labels and discriminates (boy=blue vs. girl= pink) - 2. 3-6construct gender (girl= barbies vs. boys = trucks) - 3. 7-11 stereotyping and rigid (boys play with boys and girl play with girls) - 4. 12+ gender identity (starts to change/more open, find yourself) - Coming out of the closet: - Ages 8-10 recognize it - Ages 10-13 exploring (both) - Ages 13-17 accepting it - Ages 17-19 integration (fully gay) - Fredrick Keiser: (sexual behaviour theory in kids) - 5 main categories: - 1. Communication (talking about private parts) - 2. Exhibition (show private parts, running naked as a kid) - 3. Modeling (playing doctor, dolls, games) - 4. Self- touching - 5. Touching others - Sex differences: 4 main categories: - 1. Physical and mental health: - School (grades girls do better than boys) - Mental disabilities (boys have higher chance for dyslexia) - Aggressive behaviours: increase with males - 2. Physical development: - Activity level (how active kid is) - Strength (how strong kid is) - Height and growth rates - 3. Cognitive development: - Math abilities (boys better than girls) - Linguistic (girls better than boys) - 4. Socioemotional development: - Emotional patterns (girls more sensitive than boys) - Risk taking (boys are bigger risk takers than girls are) - Interest areas and activities - Play style - Kids understand themselves through the activities that they are involved in, their surroundings (environment), and their cultures - Gender development theory (Piaget): - Through cognitive development stages to find gender identity (what kids go through) - Kids progress through stages (one after the other: in order) - Understanding by Piaget = conservation - Lawrence Kohlberg: (1986) - Took Piaget’s theory and created gender consistency: states that gender development is based upon kids understanding of gender schemes (expectations) - Gender remains stable (kids think) even with physical changes - Primary sexual characteristics: reproductive organs - Secondary sexual characteristics: physical changes (voice, etc) Lecture 8: (Emotions) - Discrete emotional theory: basic emotions are innate and associated with bodily/facial reactions - Emotion: reaction and experience from environmental stimulus - Functionalist perspective: views on emotion as playing an adaptive role helping the individual achieve goals - Secondary emotions: emerge at age 2 and can include: embarrassment, shyness, guilt, jealously, pride, envy, contempt, etc - Primary emotions: occur at age 1 or are innate: distress, disgust, sadness, fear, interest, surprise, joy, anger, etc - Empathy: ability to recognize, perceive, and feel the emotions of another (putting yourself in someone else’s shoes) - Social referencing: infants use another’s cues to interpret events - Ex: social smiling smile because others are smiling - Selman’s 5 roles of social development: - Ability to understand one’s self and others around them - 1. Egocentric/undifferiented (self centered and don’t care) - 2. Social-info role taking (share info with others) - 3. Self-reflective role taking (get feedback) - 4. Mutual role taking (both use feedback) - Societal role (constant within society) - Role taking = related to experience - TOM (theory of mind): understanding human actions (intentions and beliefs, emotions, and desires) by underlying mental states - Social development: moral judgements of others - (empathy for example) - Cognitive development: reasons about representations - Measuring false belief tasks: - Ball task with the 2 kids playing, 1 kid puts the ball in a basket then leaves the room, the other kids removes the ball and places a different basket... where will the first kid look for the ball? - 4 year olds and under have trouble answering this question because they have not yet developed theory of mind - False photograph test: same test except done by showing pictures of the events - Dissociation in development: age 3-4 (TOM)/ cognitive skills begin to develop, and dissociation is that the kids younger do not understand why (can’t place themselves in the other kids shoes that has no knowledge of the ball being moved) - Animacy test: using shapes to show a task/story - Kids with no TOM will not understand what the pictures are they will
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