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PSYC Exam Review 25 Questions

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John Mitterer

Sample Question 1. What is the difference between experiential and reflective cognition? Which is more important for good academic performance? Explain and relate to the two processes of self-reflection and critical thinking. *Introduction - Experiential cognition: style of thought arising during inactive experience ex. watching TV and not thinking very much - Reflective cognition: style of thought arising while actively thinking about an experience ex. watching TV on global warming and then googling more on global warming - Reflective cognition is more important for good academic performance. - Self-reference/reflection: relating new information to prior life experiences; will make new ideas more personally meaningful and easier to remember - Critical thinking: ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize what you are reading - Doing both self-reflection and critical thinking can make learning and remember new concepts much easier Sample Question 2. What are the 2 criteria for critical thinking in psychology? In the end, which of the 2 criteria is more important? Why? *Notes - Theory & Data - A theoretical explanation: a mechanism or principle that tells us how something works; does it make sense, is there a simple alternative explanation? - Empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation; in favor or against? - A critical thinking focuses on both absent or questionable explanations or evidence - Evidence is more important b/c if theory and observations conflict, you can change the theory Q1. Explain the 3 types of representativeness issues discussed in class. In what way are these 3 types all concerned with representativeness? *Notes - Setting representativeness ex. a zoo if an unnatural environment for an ape - Researcher effects o Experiment bias: usually happens unconsciously, can make study blind - Demand characteristics o Research participant bias: placebo or Hawthorne effect (when people know they’re being studied) - All 3 of these types can skew experimental results and not give accurate conclusions to a hypothesis Q2. What are premodernism, modernism and postmodernism? Why is it fair to say the postmodernist is “incredulous towards metanarratives”? What does this have to do with tolerance? *Notes - Premodernism: - Modernism: - Postmodernism: - - Q3. What is the “triune brain” hypothesis? What functions are carried out by each of the levels and what does it mean to say that they result in “competing operating systems”? *Notes - Reptilian; Hindbrain (brainstem): medulla (vital signs), pons (sleep/arousal), cerebellum (coordination) - Paleomammalian; Limbic system: amygdala (fear), hippocampus (memories), hypothalamus (emotion) - Neomammalian; Cerebral cortex: left and right hemispheres (lobes), corpus callosum (thick band of axon fibers) - Triune brain: connections among the3 brains; evolutionary; - 3 competing operating systems b/c all are vital for life, but each have their own missions o Reptilian: territorial, ritual behaviours o Paleomammalian: nurturing behaviours o Neomammalian: cognition, planning Q4. What does it mean to localize function in the brain? How could you use fMRI to investigate the potential role the hippocampus plays in memorizing information? *Chapter 2 - Localization of function: linking psychological/behavioural functions with specific structures in the brain - If damage to a particular part of the brain consistently leads to a particular loss of function, then the function is localized in that structure - Hippocampus: part of brain associated with storing memories - An fMRI measures brain activity so you could allow someone to memorize a few words or pictures and then ask them to recite them at a later time. Depending on which areas of the brain are active while they remember will show how much of a role the hippocampus plays in memorizing information Q5. Define the terms “assimilation”, “accommodation”, and “schema” How do these processes and/or structures combine to produce cognitive growth? Why are assimilation and accommodation called “functional invariants”? *Chapter 3 - Assimilation: in Piaget’s theory, using existing mental patterns in new situations; top-down; new situation is “digested” to existing mental schemes ex. child sees horse in person and yells “horse!” b/c seen on TV before - Accomodation: in Piaget’s theory, existing ideas are modified to fit new requirements; bottom-up; mental schemes are changes to accommodate new experiences ex. child sees zebra and yells “horse!”, must now accommodate new concept of zebra and modify concept of horse - Together these processes help in the development of many concepts as children age through cognitive growth - They are called functional invariants b/c their purposes do not change throughout life. They will always help cognitive growth b/c one can never learn everything so assimilation and accommodation are constantly used Q6. What is object permanence and how can testing for it be used to distinguish if an infant is in the sensory-motor stage or the preoperational stage? Explain your reasoning. *Chapter 3 - Object permanence: the concept that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight - It is developed in infancy between the ages of 2-7, which is the preoperational stage - In the senosorymotor stage, which is 0-2 years, babies cannot recognize that an object is still there b/c they cannot make mental images yet - If an object is shown to a 2 year old and they begin to cry when the object is hidden under a blanket, they are most likely in the sensorimotor stage, if not they have stepped in the preoperational stage Q7. Define each of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. At what stage would you say you were? *Chapter 3 - Stage 1: 0-1.5 years old; trust vs. mistrust o Babies are completely dependent at this stage so love, comfort, and touching from parents will form trust while rejecting and ignoring can cause mistrust which can later turn into insecurity - Stage 2: 1.5-3 years old; autonomy vs. shame/doubt o Independence is built, but only if the parents are forgiving and do not doubt the child’s abilities - Stage 3: 3-6 years old; initiative vs. guilt o Giving children freedom to make plans, play, ask questions rather than discourage or make children feel guilty about initiating activities - Stage 4: 6-12 years old; industry vs. inferiority o Children gain industry by praise for productive activities, if efforts are considered inadequate feelings of inferiority (weakness) can result - Stage 5: adolescence (12-18 years old); identity vs. role confusion o Who am I? build an identity or confusion will develop about who they are or where they are going - Stage 6: young adulthood (19-40 years old); intimacy vs. isolation o Need to share love or deep friendship so they don’t feel alone o I would say I am at this stage - Stage 7: middle adulthood 940-65 years old); generativity vs. stagnation o Caring for future generations by guiding one’s own children or becoming stagnant (inactive); life loses meaning and person feels trapped - Stage 8: late adulthood (65+); integrity vs. despair o Developing self-respect due to a rich and responsible life rather than regret or remorse, can lead to depression Q8. What are the distal stimulus, the proximal stimulus, and the percept? What are sensation and perception? How do these 5 terms interrelate? *Notes/Chapter 4 - Distal stimulus: actual or real stimulus; objects or events in the world - Proximal stimulus: pattern of energy from objects or events falling on sense receptor (ears, eyes, etc.) - Percept: “reality”, our experience of a stimulus; mental impression of something perceived - Sensation: information arriving from the sense organs are transduced to nervous impulses - Perception: when the brain organizes sensations into meaningful patterns - StimulusSense receptorMental impressionPatterns - Without the proximal stimulus the distal stimulus would not be taken in by the senses, which would then not be sensed during sensation and no percept would be created by perception Q9. What is the difference between these 2 theories of perception: naïve realism and constructivism? What is an illusion and how does the study of illusions help us distinguish between these 2 theories? *Notes - Naïve realism: that idea that what we see is that same as what is out there; the sense provide us with direct awareness; we perceive objects as they really are - Constructivism: the idea that our perceptual experience is constructed from incoming sensory information (the percept is not the distal stimulus) - Illusion: a misleading perception - From studying illusions we know that what the eye or other sensory organs perceive isn’t always true; length, position, or direction can be distorted and trick the brain into seeing something that isn’t really there Q10. Our perceptions are assembled in both bottom-up and top-down fashion. Explain, using the Ames room as an example. *Chapter 4 - Bottum-up processing: begin with small sensory units and build upward to a complete perception ex. puzzle never done before - Top-down processing: preexisting knowledge is used to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole ex. puzzle done many times - The Ames room is a lopsided space that appears square when viewed from a certain angle; by using top-down processing the mind imagines a regular square room, but since the size is distorted bottom-up processing forces the mind to see a lopsided room Q11. Define and give an example of any 5 monocular depth cues. *Chapter 4 - Relative size: if an artist wants to depict 2 objects of the same size at different distances, they will make the more distant object smaller ex. drawing 2 twins of the same height, the one in the background will look much shorter and smaller - Light and shadow: lighting objects gives shadowing, which can make a 2D object look 3D ex. when drawing a sphere the bottom will be darker to make the sphere appear 3D off the paper - Height in the picture plane: objects placed higher in a drawing tend to be perceived as more distant ex. drawing a street of houses the ones closer to the horizon will appear further away - Texture gradient: changes in texture also change depth perception ex. cobblestone street will look coarse and rough in front of you, but finer the further away - Linear perspective: apparent meeting of parallel lines ex. railroad tracks appear to meet in the distance Q12. What is a perceptual constancy? Define the 3 types discussed in your textbook. *Chapter 4 - Perceptual constancy: the tendency to see familiar objects as having standard shape, size, colour, or location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective, distance, or lighting o Size constancy: the perceived size of an object remains constant, even though the size of its image on the retina changes ex. when you put one hand farther from your face you know your hand didn’t get smaller it just is farther than the other hand o Shape constancy: the perceived shape of an object is unaffected by changes in its retinal image ex. when looking at the textbook from another angle, you still know it is rectangular o Brightness constancy: the apparent brightness of objects remains the same as long as they are illuminated by the same amount of light ex. a friend is wearing a white shirt and grey pants, a cloud shades the sun, but the shirt will still
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