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Natual History.doc

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Carleton University
BIOL 1902

Course Notes For Natural History Bio 1902Week 1Natural History is the enjoyment of nature is real life enjoymentobservation of living plantsanimalsflaurafauna Observational science Its the combination of all sciences biology zoologyetc All about the survival and passing on genes Genetic survival is the key to life it is immortality Adaptations are the ability to survive evolution find nutrition avoid predators reproducing Any traits that offer plantsanimals an advantage in solving a problem can be physical features thorns antlersetc physiologicalchemical features stinger or behavioral birds flock Adaptations are not acts of intelligence or planned solutions They are features that take millions of years to evolve They occur because of selective pressures these pressures include environmental stresses pressures that arise from other animals competition for food predators This is called Natural Selection which was first identified by Charles Darwin it is never ending and it is the driving force behind evolution All things living are driven to reproduce any trait that gives a species an advantage is reproducing and passing on genes is proliferate becomes a trait Adaptations are features that allow a species to pass on its gene Problem1 Staying alive DEFENSES physical chemical behavioralPhysicalCamouflage is the act of not being seen makes animals harder to see Crypsis is the appearance of the animalbehavior of not moving Every habitat has hidden creatures Background matching is when it has the same general patterncolors of the background Ex gray tree frog can change its color to match background or the snowshoe hare changes color of fur seasonallyso Some habitats have vertical lines grasslandsmarshesbirds hide here streaksstripes are preferred Ex the American Bittern can be well camouflaged here They have eyes on the front of their hide at the base of the bill so they can see when they look up Some pond insects Water boatmen have black above white underneath so they are camouflaged from two different directions 2 distinct coloration so they are bi colored White tailed deer are two colored white belly dark on top but this is the shadow effect or counter shading Upper part shadows the white part makes them vanish more into the background makes them appear flat self shadowing concealment Camouflage can also be seen as an offense too not just a defenseEx hawks hiding from their prey Disruptive Pattern a pattern that goes to the edge of the animal that breaks up the body visually so the predator can not see the whole shape Ex 1stripe above the eye and the line through the eye of song birds Warblerssmall birds the call for warblers is pishing The stripe is also for camouflage when they sit on their cupnests their heads stick out 2killdeer have breast bands3Canadian Geese have a chin strap4Common Loon has a necklace The male and female both look the same because they both sit on the nest Not only do we have color to camouflage but we have shapes as well Angled winged butterflies Eastern Comma The shape of them can match their background They are brownruffledmimic a dead leaf this is called Background Mimicry The Luna Moth caterpillar also resembles a dead leaf Common moths roll up their wings to appear like a dead leaf they also use the shadow effect by putting their head dead down to appear hollow Animals can look like other things too like the tree hopper mimics a thorn Twig mimics like inch worms hide at night feed at night because its safer and cooler and walking sticks Animals can hide without using background matchingmimicry Spittle bugs to protect their eggs mimic something in edible Some caterpillarsmoths mimic bird droppings Some moths like the Sphinx even position their bodies on trees to match their patterns more closely The Sphinx has bright colorseyes as well which surprise the predator this is called the Startle Pattern it is hidden until needed Polyphemus moth has massive eyes on their under wings which are hidden under their other set of wings so that predators cant get accustomed to the patterns Tip Sugar baiting with beer to attract mothsWeek 2More examples of Startle PatternsGray tree frog has yellow underneath on their legs also seen in the ringnecked snake and the redbellied snake this startles predators Beaver startles predators by smacking the water with their tails this is the Startle Sound Effect Some animals have fake eyeseye spots that are NOT hidden ex eyed elater to give them the illusion that they are bigger than life The startle pattern also has a second function to deflect the attack to that part of the body distractiondeflection patterns so the attack is to a nonvital part of the body Swallowtail butterflies have tails that are detachable serve their purpose if they get bitten off Fine lined skinks have a bright blue tail thats for deflection tails on skinks are loosely attached sacrificing a tail allows the skink to live it will regrow its tail later just takes a lot of energyThis is called autonomy Bandwinged Grasshoppers have bright hind legs for distraction Ex Leafroller sumac gall aphids animals that add bits of environment to their body to disguise Galls abnormal plant growth usually with insects house things kind of part of a masquerade as well Physical Defense can consist of Body Armor Exoskeleton Ex millipedes roll into a ball to protect soft underparts Beetles tuck in antennas and pull in their legs as well Shells can be made of calcium like claim shells and snail shells Snail shells have a door to close behind them after entering their shell Turtle Shells are formed from internal skeleton Blanding Turtle can partially close its shell while the Box Turtle can fully close their shell Physical Defenses can be Soft too soft defenses like theEastern tent caterpillar web make a silk web that animals dont like to eat they only leave to get food Fall Webwormsilk nest build a silk web around leafs so they dont need to leave A defense can also soft hairs like the gypsy moth caterpillar birds dont like the hairs The Tussock moth caterpillar rolls into a ball to protect the soft part of the body just like the woolly bear but their hair is modified to be stiff spines Mammals can also use hair for defense purposes Ex The Porcupine has quills which are white at the base and black at the top aposematic coloration which are modified guard hairs The quills have scalesto push deeper into the predatorgreasy coating of antibioticmaybe to impair themselves Chemical Defenses can be hairpoison like the monkey slug Animals with chemical defenses are often brightly colored like a warning colorationaposematic coloration Redeft Salamander has poison in their skin Lady Bugs are bad to eat make alkaloids Many animals SEQUESTER their poisons from plants like the milkweed beetle from the milkweed but poison can be sequestered from another animal as well ex different species of fireflies WaspsBees inject their poison through their stinger Blister beetles exude poison form their leg jointsGrasshoppers from their mouthsSkunks has a sack full of sulfuralcohol can fire as far as 7 meters though an anal nipple
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