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Fall Terms 2013 Exam Review.docx

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Carleton University
Communication Studies
COMM 2002
Heather Pyman

COMM 2001 Fall term labs review For specific definitions, please refer to your course textbook. The purpose of this document is to help you understand the concepts using normal discourse. Levels of measurement: * This is the most fundamental thing about Quantitative. YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS. No B.S. No guessing. Nominal, Ordinal and Interval. Tattoo it on your face if you have to. A topic/concept is not limited to one of these three levels of measurement. Anything can be any of these three. ex: the topic of baseball ex1: Do you like Baseball? (nominal) -yes -no ex2: How often do you watch baseball? (ordinal) very often -often -sometimes -rarely -never ex3: How many baseball games a week do you watch? (interval) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -Nominal: A variable to which the answers are not quantifiable, and there is no specific order to them. ex1: Do you like eating snow? -Yes -No There is no order, and the answers are not quantifiable - yes is not bigger than no and vice versa. ex2: What color is your piano? -green -black -white -brown Again, there is no order, and the answers are not quantifiable - green is not > black. -Ordinal A variable in which the answer have an order, but are vague in concept. ex1: How much you like the TV series "Honey Boo Boo"? -Very much -Quite a lot -Not very much -Freaking hate it As you can see here, "very much? > "Quite a lot", but by how much?? There is an order to these answers however. -Interval: There is an order to these variables, and they are quantifiable. You can pinpoint EXACTLY what the person answered. ex1: On a scale of 1 - 10 (1=not at all / 10= a lot), how much do you like exams? -1 -2 -3 ... -10 If someone answered 3, I know they meant 3. The number 3 does not belong to a larger group like ordinal variables. Research Questions: This is the general question you have on the topic. It is allowed to be somewhat vague as you are curious about the topic. ex: Does gender play a role in the amount of chocolate eaten? Hypothesis: Here you are making a claim that at least one variable is having an effect on another. This is what you believe. ex: Men are likely to eat more chocolate than woman. Null hypothesis: You are stating that there is no relationship between your variables. ex: Men are not likely to eat more chocolate than women Measures of central tendency: Answers to random hypothetical question: 1,1,1,1,1,2,3,4,5,6,6,6,7,8,9 mode: (use for Nominal, Ordinal, and Interval) most repeated answer within your variable ex: in the random example, "1" would be your mode median: (use for Ordinal, and Interval) This is the middle number within your answers (answers must be placed in chronological order) Ex: "4" is your median Mean: (use for Interval) The mean is all of the answers added up, divided by the number of answers. ex: There are 15 answers. All of them combined add up to 61. 61 divided by 15 = 4.066 Therefore 4.066 is your mean. ** Remember this for the Standard Deviation section** Measures of dispersion: Range: ((use for Ordinal, and Interval) The highest answer answered minus the lowest answe
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