September 17, 2013
The “Old” History: A type of history that is being done from 18901960.
George Wrong: (18601948) Old Historian who focused on people. Interested in
legislative stepping stones on the way to the making of the Canadian nation. Can tell the
story by looking at the legislation that led from colony to nation.
Harold Adams Innis (18941954): representative of the old style of writing/studying
history, giant of the 2 generation of historians, the “staple thesis” of how Canada came
to be. Focuses on the larger forces, geography.
Staple Thesis: Original contributions that Canadians have ever made to international
political economy. Tells how nations develop and come from Harold Adams Innis.
Europe looking for fish, end up on our East Coast. English settled in Canada first. Found
the beaver, and continued travelling west to find more beaver. It came about because of
our geography, not in spite of or because of men.
The Cod Fishery: 2 major work from Harold Adams Innis, and depressing. Attempts to
explain why staple based economy’s/nations can get stuck in a state of growth. We had
nothing to process the fish with.
Donald Creighton (19021975): An old Historian, looking at economic beliefs and put
people back in history. Believes people are essential to history, and tries to put people in
the Staple Thesis. The commercial Empire of the St. Lawrence book by Creighton.
WWII: breaks out and brings focus back to people.
John A MacDonald: The Young Lion (1952) and John A MacDonald: The Old Chieftain
(1955): Old style history written by Donald Creighton. The books tell that John A
MacDonald helped to build, understand people and made the nation work. “Don’t touch
an issue that will divide a nation” a.k.a the art of procrastination.
The “New” history and Campus Life during the 1960’s: catalyst the leads to a new type
of history being produced in the universities. History about demographics, feminism and
civil rights. Not only men, and not only central Canada. Baby Boomers. A history from
below (those without power). A history of masses, social & cultural.
Women’s History: Don’t vote until 1917. Robert Borden helps the women for
Acadiensis School: An example of those that embraced a new approach to our past.
Challenged. “Confederation screwed the East Coast over” “Privatizing the Mind: The Sundering of Canadian History, the Sundering of Canada”
(1991): Written by Micheal Bliss. Concerned about Canada coming apart and wants to
know why. Because of new historians. We think as limited identities, not as Canadians.
Story of Wrong and Innis that combined is being ripped apart by the “new” history.
September 24, 2013
“Napi”: A creation story of the Blackfoot Tribe. The world was covering in water, and
Napi wanted to know what was under. The Duck, Otter and Badger all try to swim down,
but they don’t find anything but water. The muskrat comes back up with a ball of mud.
Napi creates mountains & rivers/lakes. Creates the Blackfoot Tribe.
“World Parent”: a creation story of the Huron Tribe. There are people in the sky and a
celestial tree. A woman digs up the tree, falls through the hole and lands on a Canada
goose who puts her on the back of the great turtle which turns into North America.
Beringia land Bridge Theory: Alaska & Russia. 450 years ago Jose De Acosta is the
originator. Believes during the ice age, a piece of land was exposed and people could
walk across this “bridge” to North America
TransOceanic Migration Theory: Theory by Felix Delroia in 1995. People could sail on
rafts from country to country, and they followed the currents to North America.
Vikings: Scandinavians, conquering parts of Europe. The Vikings golden age was 790
1066. Barbaric. Broke out due to not enough farming land in Scandanavia.
Knarr: Viking Ship, most advanced ship around. Makes the golden Viking age plausible.
A long ship that could carry 50 vikings plus cargo. Can go forward and backwards easily.
Leif Ericson (9601020): 1 European to set foot in North America. Establishes
permanent settlement in Newfoundland. A Viking, born in Ireland. In 1002, He fleed from
Greenland to Baffin Island to Newfoundland.
Commercial Revolution: (14501750) one of the stimulants to transatlantic voyage. A
revolution in trade: farmers became merchants and began to trade in Europe and Asia.
The Far East Trade: trade between Europe and Asia. Europe wants spices (pepper)
because their food sucks.
15 Banking: No banking prior to 15 century. 1. You get deposits. 2. Cheques. 3.
Goldsmiths realize they can lend out money (loans).
Ship Improvements after 1450: 6 tech changes: 1. Sails are different: 4 sails now that
attack wind and harness the wind. 2. Sails are made out of camels. 3. Rutter – to control the direction. 4. Crow’s nest can see attackers, rocks, sand banks, land. 5.
Planking/decking shelter for food/people.
Astrolabe: 6 Ship change technology. Determines latitude and position. A circular
moving arm that allows to determine suns position. After 1450, allows people to know
where they are.
The Far East Trade: The Trade between Europe and Asia. Europe wanted Spices such as
pepper for their food. During the Commercial revolution.
Christopher Columbus (14511506): 2 man to discover North America and leads to a
permanent presence of Europe in North and South America. Spain gives him the
resources and backbone to travel to try and find the NorthWest passage. Hits Cuba first
and then America.
Spain and the gold and silver paradox: This makes Spain poor. Inflation: prices shoot up.
Gold and Silver doesn’t stay in Spain, it ends up in Britain.
Spanish Armada: (1588) Significant: Brings the end to Spain as a superpower & leads to
the rise of England and France. Spanish wanted to take over England, and plan a military
attack. Spain loses the war.
Mercantilism: The main economic system used during the sixteenth to eighteenth
centuries. The main goal was to increase a nation's wealth by imposing government
regulation concerning all of the nation's commercial interests. It was believed that
national strength could be maximized by limiting imports via tariffs and maximizing
Triangle Trades: English set up a number of triangle trades. They keep bringing England
back to Canada. (England, British West Indies, New England) (England, Africa, North
and South Carolina/Georgia) (England, Spain, Newfoundland)
October 1, 2013
Goivanni Cabota (14491498): Significant: representative of the desire on the part of the
nations of Europe to sail west to either find gold, silver or NorthWest passage. Begins to
make a name for himself travelling across the Mediterranean.
Norumberga: Significant: it shows the belief of Europeans during the 15 and 16 th
century, that North America has gold mines equivalent to those of the south. A city that is
all gold and silver, the houses are made of gold and people are dripping of gold.
Martin Frobisher (15391594): Significant: sails in May 1576, arrives at Baffin Islands.
Looking for NorthWest passage or gold & silver. Gets investors. Second voyage in 1577, beings back 200 tons of rock. More people invest. Third voyage in 1578. Comes back
with 2000 tons. People realize it was Fool’s gold. FIRST MINING SCANDAL.
“The beef of the sea”: Significant: The cod (protein rich fish). Canada’s 1 staple product,
the thing that brings Europe to our shores on a continuous basis.
Grand Banks: off the coast of Newfoundland, 300000 sq km. 3 banks: Green Bank,
Grand Bank and St. Pierre Bank. Shallow water filled with cod.
2 ways of preserving fish:
1) Wet Curing: used by the continental powers of Europe on the sea/fishing boats.
Never have to go ashore. Rip the tongue out to keep track of how many fish they
caught. Salt is the way of curing the fish, packed to keep it fresh.
2) Dry curing: Done on land. English used this method. Anchored ship in
Conception Bay. Row boats and catch fish. Lightly salt the fish and then throw
out in the sun.
The Sailing life: Stench human sweat and rotten food, smells of open sewer. Tight, no
privacy, no cabin unless you’re the captain. Food: not a lot, a bit of beef and small
cracker. 1000 calories. 1 litre of water mixed with rum to disinfect the water. Vermin:
bugs, scorpians, flees, spiders, rats and mice. Harsh punishments.
3 risks of cod fishing: 1) Lose your ship to a storm. 2) Glut in the marketplace, price of
fish falls. 3) Lose your ship to a pirate.
Peter Easton: born wealthy, and gets a rank in the Navy with connections. Navy cuts
down on people, Easton goes into pirating. Attacks merchant ships of English and France
in the English Channel. Heads to Grand Banks, attacks ships for the next 7 years. Retires
in 1615 with 2 million pounds of gold in Italy.
The NeoMarxist Interpretation of Newfoundland’s Underdevelopment: Blames the
capitalist (the guys involved in fisheries). Blames investors in cod fisheries.
The Neillian Interpretation of NFLD Underdeveloped: Distinct Regional Economies
Hypothesis. NFLD is the case of the staple trap.
October 8 , 2013
Samuel de Champlain (15701635): Significant: Founder of New France and brings a
value of tolerance to Canada. Goes on 27 voyages and only loses 1 man, and no ships.
Henry IV (15891610): Significant: Samuel de Champlain’s mentor, and is very tolerant.
Known as the King of Hearts, loved by everyone, especially the women. Passes a charter
for religious freedoms. Quebec City: Established 1608 by Champlain. Significant: oldest city in Canada, a fur
Kirke Brothers: 1627. Significant: their actions lead the French crown to decide that the
church should oversee the development of New France rather than chartered companies.
2 Pirateers working for England. Occupy New France in 1632. Church takes over in
Jesuits: the company of Jesus. Significant: oversee the development of New France from
Similarities between the Jesuits and Huron: believe in god/ believe in supernatural things,
fishing, believe in an afterlife.
Jesuits vs Huron:
1. Heaven and Hell/Only Heaven
2. Sanctity of one marriage/ more liberal, divorce is easier
3. (Meaning of existence) to prepare yourself for afterlife/ to be one with nature
Small Pox: breaks out in Huron nation, blames the Europeans, spreads among population.
More than half the population wiped out. 1649 after the disease, Europeans took over the
The fall of Huronia and the death of Father de Brebuf (1649): Significant: causes the
French Crown to shift policy and hand over development of New France to the
government. Father de Brebuf (15931649): a genuine priest who spends years trying to
convert population to Christianity. Tortured to death by the Iroquis.
Jean Baptiste Colbert (16181683): Significant: oversees the rejuvenation of New France.
The Minister of the Marine, works for the king.
France Triangle Trades:
New France to France & French West Indies: Furs, fish, minerals, lumber, hemp
France to New France & French West Indies: Manufactured goods
French West Indies to New France & France: Sugar
Jean Talon: Significant: 1 governor of New France (16631673)
36 Monthers: Significant: used to populate New France. Work for 3 years as a slave, get
food and a house. After 3 years, you’re free.
The Daughters of the King: Significant: Another way Talon tries to stimulate population
growth in New France. Took Orphan girls and brought them over to New France.
Decapitation Thesis: the separates in the Canadian society, interpretation of Quebec’s
backwardness. Because of the English, Decapitation of the Elite. 2000 people from Quebec decide to leave in 1759, they were doctors , merchants. Leave because the
Bad People Thesis: Ferdinand Ouelette “the French are to blame”. They didn’t do the
right thing with their money.
NeoConservative Interpretation: Blames the government. Believed there was too much
government intervention and forced the growth too fast.
Hemp: example of NeoConservative point that government involvement screws things
“Rich by nature, poor by policy”. Had everything to make or a successful company. 1 st
brewery: 16701674. Canada had plenty of barley, hops, water and yeast to make the