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PSYC1001 Full Notes for the Entire Year

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PSYC 1001
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PSYC1001CHAPTER 6Habituation1Simplest form of learning2Learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly3Measure a reaction as a physiological reaction4Introduce new stimuli and see what happens5Ex measure infants attention with a rattle attention goes down with each new presentation presume infant has learned about the rattle6Dishabituation havent learned about the information yet7Once habituated dont respond anymore8Short term or long term depending on how often and how long one is presented with the object Classical Conditioning9PavlovoBefore conditioning dog is presented with food unconditioned stimulus and begins to salivate unconditioned response introduce a tone conditioned stimulus and dog would not salivateoConditioning food unconditioned stimulus is paired with tone conditioned stimulus leads to unconditioned response of salivationoAfter conditioning after the tone conditioned stimulus dog begins to salivate conditioned response10Acquisition initial stage of conditioning11Extinction occurs when consistently produced the conditioned stimulus but there is no unconditioned stimulus presented with it presenting the tone but never presented the foodsalivating would stop if it is possible to learn then it is possible to unlearn however it is difficultoEx being in the military and then going back to a normal lifewill demonstrate same behaviours and routineshard to extinguish these behaviours sometimes12Spontaneous recovery extinction has occurred but subject is brought to initial location where behaviour was learned and subject will relearnoEx addiction programs will ensure recovered patient will not go to initial environment where behaviour was first learned as it might be relearned13Stimulus generalization behaviour is learned with specific object and subject will respond to any similar objectsoEx using a bell and hitting metal with a hammer will result in response14Stimulus discrimination behaviour is learned with specific object and subject does not respond to any similar objectsoEx owners car comes up the road dog gets excited neighbours car comes up the road dog does not respond15Higher order conditioning pairing of two conditioned stimuli to get a response Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning16Ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predict the occurrence of an important event that allows the learner to make the appropriate response faster and more effectivelyoEx fire alarm17Stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some of the properties of the important stimuli and can now modify behaviouroEx fire alarm doesnt mean anything to an infant until others teach infant how to respond properly Conditional Emotional Responses18Phobias irrational fear learned through classical conditioning19Can be due to first hand experience or through observational learning Other Types20Physiological responsesoEx immune system learns to fight against certain bacteria with the development of antibodiesoEx dressing a certain way or setting up a certain mood in a room in order to produce arousaloEx advertising uses positive images such as sex money and alcohol to get consumers Operant Conditioning21Law of Effect Thorndikes idea that the consequences of a behaviour determine whether it is likely be to be repeatedoBehaviour and a reward leads to continuing the behaviouroBehaviour and punishment leads to not doing it again22SkinneroStudied with pigeons and ratsoSet up occasion for certain response if producesa positive response strengthens the behaviour23Positive reinforcement offering something that is pleasantoEx baby goes pee give him a candy24Negative reinforcement taking away something that is unpleasantoEx dog does what you want then you take off their shock collar25Punishment oSubject does something bad adding something unpleasantEx child hits another child put the child in as timeoutoSubject does something bad take away a pleasant thingEx teen does something bad take away his cell phoneoNegative side effects of punishmentCorporal punishment can lead to injuryInducement of fear and hostilityIt teaches that corporal punishment is an acceptable responsePunishment teaches a person what response not to makeIt does not teach person the desirable responseoEffectiveness too much can lead to futuristic bad behaviour but just enough can work must punish right away so the behaviour is associated with the punishment must be consistent in order to reinforce better behaviour provide rational so it is understood why behaviour is unacceptable dont use corporal punishmentoMethods physical or psychological2Extinction behaviour is no longer reinforced and behaviour disappears3Escape learning response that decreases or ends an aversive stimulusoEx creating excuses to get away from an unpleasantunwanted scenario4Avoidance learning response that prevents aversive stimulusoEx avoiding class because you dont want to go5Generalization ability to react to a similar stimulioEx dog reacts to bell dog will react to hammer on metal6Discrimination ability to not react to a similar stimulioEx dog reacts to bell but dog does not react to anything else similar with tone7Shaping reward behaviour that is close to desired behaviour8Intermittent reinforcement give reward sometimes but not always OR give a large reward sometimes but give smaller ones other timesoEx gamblingsometimes you may get money but sometimes you may not OR sometimes you may get 10 while other times you may get 100o Variable Ration give different amounts of a reward sometimes you get 10 sometimes 100 best way in motivating desired responseo Variable Interval dont know when you will be getting the reward maybe Monday but maybe Thursday second best in motivating desired responseo Fixed Ratio get the same amount of a reward every time get 1 treat every time something is done well third best in motivating desired responseo Fixed Interval get the same of a reward every time at the same time every 2 weeks get a paycheck of 300 last best in motivating desired response Recent Research on Conditioning9Instinctive Drift Study trained raccoons to save money but raccoons started rubbing the coins together because of their instinct of rubbing food together kicked inproves that instincts can overwrite or prevent conditioning10Conditioned Taste Aversion eat something that leads to a bad outcome like being sick and seeing the food later on causes subject to immediately associate the food to being negative11Preparedness and Phobias 12Evolutionary Perspectives genetically normal to be afraid of things that may be a threat or had been in the past13Cognitive Processes understanding why people respond a certain way and the complexity of conditioning Observation and Imitation14Classical and operant can be acquired through observation15Involves attention see the behaviour retention remember info reproduction reproduce behaviour and motivation must want to16Imitation can be deferredoEx adult swears child will retain that swear and swear later on17Media is filled with negative behaviour such as aggression and violence exposure to this behaviour does prove to lead to the reproduction of the behaviour whether right away or later in lifeCHAPTER 7Three processes of memoryEncoding involves transforming information into a form that can be stored in memoryPresented with sensory information and encode this information
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