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Midterm Notes ! Chapter 10,11 and some of 12

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

CHAPTER 10 HUMAN MOTIVATION • An area of psychological sciences exploring the factors of what energizes behaviour. Motivational theories and concepts 4 components 1. Energizing: prompts you to do something 2. Directive : know what the motivation is 3. Persistence : how much you want to achieve something 4. Strength : see above Drive theories • Homeostasis : state whose equilibrium has been disturbed • Drive : psychological state that motivates us to satisfy needs • Need : state of biological or social deficiency Incentive theories • Regulation by external stimuli Evolutionary theories • Maximizing reproductive success Biological and social motives • No absolute distinction Self-determination theory Inherent growth : people have 3 inherent growth tendencies. Basic premise: humans are naturally active and seek opportunities to learn and grow. 1. Autonomy: person's perception that they control their lives. 2. Competence: feeling that you are getting better at what you're doing. Controlling your environment. 3. Relatedness: need to interact with others make other people’s lives more enjoyable. Type of motivation For both the behaviour might the same, but the motivation is different • Intrinsic: inherently interesting, enjoyable. • Extrinsic: reward motivation, avoiding punishment. (ex: education, good grades is a reward.) The over-justification effect External incentives (extrinsic) decrease people's motivation (intrinsic) to perform a task. Incentives are not always effective and intrinsic motivations are more effective. Motivation of hunger (what determines what you eat) What determines what we eat: • Habits (eating every day at noon) • Culture (aphrodisiacs are believed in some cultures) • Brain Glucose and digestive regulation system theory • Glucostatic theory: neurons sensitive to glucose levels, however glucose levels don't fluctuate very quickly. Hormonal regulation theory • Insulin,leptin Hypothalamus and eating • Middle region (hyperfagia) • Outer region (afagia) Food and reward • Pre-frontal cortex (dopamine) • Activity o Overweight people o Normal weight people Why is dieting so difficult • Set-point theory: people are born with a set weight. If your weight changes, your behaviour changes. • Settling point theory: Our organism has a healthy range and your weight can fluctuate within the range. Eating and weight • 2 BMI = weight (kg)/ height (m ) • **video fattest people on earth Sexual Motivation What is your favourite activity? • Sex, ahead of sleeping and eating. Sex is very important • Present in most areas of people’s life. Family, competition, art, creativity. Sex is on our mind 24/7 whether we go to the gym, groom, flirt, study, it is to get to have sex. There are creatures without sex • Sex serve as an evolutionary purpose Determining Desire Hormonal regulation • Estrogens (F) • Androgens o Testosterone (M) (Males have 300-1000 ng/dL of blood. Females have 30-35 ng/dL) Animal kingdom • Hormones regulates mating Humans (more complicated) • Pheromones have inconclusive results • Aphrodisiacs have very little empirical results Coolidge effect: a new sexual partner reviving interest • Attractiveness of the partner, novelty. o Animal studies o Refractory period is reduced or eliminates with the introduction of a new sexual partner o More powerful in males • Story: US president, visited a farm and Mrs. Coolidge saw a male rooster copulate non-stop. She said: How many times does he do that a day? Guy: Several times. Her: Tell that to the president. President after: Same hen every time? Guy: No different ones. President: Tell that to my wife. Erotic material • Shown to increase desire for up to a few hours • Effective for males and females • Extends to other species (Monkeys. Were shown a monkey’s ass and were turned on) Evolutionary Analyses Gender differences in sexual behaviour • Parental investment theory: A parent’s investment in an individual offspring increases the chance of survival of the offspring at the cost of the ability of the parents to invest in other offspring. • Sex and parental investment o Females are choosy, picky because they have a higher level of investment, they carry the baby and protect it. o Males want anonymous sex, many times sex, and lower level of investment. o Males compete for females, and females choose males. Males go for young attractive women and females choose strong, powerful and older men. Experimental support Sexual variety • FSU studies (1970, 1980) : Women and men from attractive to average. Approached people from the other sex and asked one of 3 questions: Gender Go out with me? Come to my apt? Sex tonight? Female (pos. 56% 6% 0% ans.) Male (pos. ans.) 50% 69% 75% Sexual orientation Heterosexual/Bisexual/Homosexual • A continuum. Alfred Kinsey accounted for differences in females and males and gave a questionnaire. Sexual orientation for females is malleable, for makes less plastic. A woman might switch her preferences, not men. • Theories to account for homosexual behaviour (failed) o Environmental: detached father, strong mother o Biological: hormonal imbalance during pregnancy, child becoming gay o Genetic predisposition • Asexual. Deficiency in sexual desire, no attraction, no fantasies, no desire. o 1% of the population o Not to be confused with the lack of desire caused by hormones and other irregularities. This does not depend on hormones, just a lack of sexual motivation. They are not unhappy and they do not enjoy life less. Lots of negative stereotypes. o Women are more likely to be. 70% of the 1% of the population are females. The human sexual response 1. Excitement 2. Plateau 3. Orgasm 4. Resolution The achievement motivation Need to excel. Innate drive to be good at something • Work harder/persistence • Pursue competitive careers (moderate tasks to avoid failure) • Situational influence in achievement motives o Strength of motivation, probability of success • Fear of failure The marshmallow test A woman tells a kid in a room alone with a marshmallow that he can eat it now but if he waits he’ll have a second one. The kids who waited will apparently do better in life. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Measures motivation. Ambiguous picture in black and white. Asked to make a story. If people attribute roles to them and especially a woman giving the woman a big role has higher achievement motivation. Psychoanalysis. Used for need of power, intimacy and motivation. Element of emotional experience Cognitive component • Ability to interpret an emotion. Subjective conscious experience • Might describe it in positive and negative aspects Physiological component • Bodily (autonomic) arousal. Not within people’s control Behavioural component • Expression of emotions (body language, facial expression) • Facial feedback hypothesis (Muscles send signal to brain and brain recognizes) o When people smile, the muscles send a positive signal to the brain and it leads to happier emotions. Can be faked, can be controlled, can be suppressed. • Duchenne smile (Genuine smile) o Zygomatic major muscles + orbicularis oculi muscles Theories of emotions • James-Lange o Feel afraid because pulse is racing. o We can recognize an emotion because we are aware of our physiological signals o Problem: our body reacts the same way in different situations, theory does not account for that. • Cannon-Bard o Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the frontal cortex and ANS. o The brain interprets the situation and you get physiological responses. o Seeing a bear vs being on a date = fear vs nervousness • Schacter’s two-factors theory o Look for external cues to decide what to feel o Bears at the zoo vs bear in the wild = fear vs no fear • Evolutionary theories o Innate reactions with a little cognitive interpretation o Fear: survival. The adaptive value is evident. o Happiness: bonding, cooperation. Happiness serves important survival purposes. (Positive psychology. Branch of psychology as a response to disease psychology.) o Disgust has an evolutionary advantage because it signals what is harmful. Anger serves a protection purpose CHAPTER 11 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT • Development psychology explores the changes that occur from time of conception until one’s death Prenatal development 3 phases 1. Germinal stage (First 2 weeks) • Conception, implantation, placenta. 2. Embryonic stage (2 weeks – 2 months) • Great vulnerability, vital organs develop or baby will be born abnormal. 40% miscarriage. 3. Fetal stage (2 months – birth) • Bodily growth continues, movement begins, brain cells multiply. • Age of viability (22-23 weeks) If the baby is born premature, it has a higher chance of surviving. By 26-28 weeks, survival rate is 85% How is sex determined • Egg is fertilized by sperm o Egg cells have an X chromosome, sperm is either X or Y. As we know, females are XX and males are XY. o For up to 6 weeks the baby is sexless o SRY region.  At 6 weeks, it activates and males hormones react. If all is good, it is a male, if SRY is not activates, it is a female, an XY female. SRY also regulates movement coordination. o Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease more present in males. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal nutrition • Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology Maternal drug use • Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs (marijuana) • Foetal Alcohol syndrome o Impairs brain development  Serotonin levels  Actuate pain responses  Stress activity o Bio behavioural markers  Salivary cortisol  Heart rate o Critical brain areas involved in regulating pain responses  Altered stress regulation Maternal illness • Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza Heel lance effect Found to be similar to the ones of babies that were born from moms who took antidepressants during pregnancy. Whatever affects the mom affects the baby. Disruption in pain regulatory system and serotonin levels. It can't detect if it is threatened or pain response. Pain is a very important marker. Alcohol affects the way the organism controls pain. The childhood years: motor development Basic principles • Cephalocaudal trend - head to foot. Movements starts from the head before it moves the torso. • Proximodistal trend - centre outward. First children control the torso and then will move their limbs. Developmental norms - median age (ranges) • Cultural variations - depends on how the bay is brought up, depending on the caregivers, the earlier it will gain mobility, if more attention is given and more interactions with people. Genetics and environment are factors on maturation norms. • Variation in age of developmental milestones Easy and difficult babies  Temperament is used to describe personality of babies, combination of mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity. Longitudinal vs cross-sectional designs. • Longitudinal: follows a group of children, of different ages, follows them for a period of time. We can test them at predetermined moment on the timeline from time 1 to time 2, or wait for time to pass by and compare from beginning to end. Pros: because we are following the same people, there is very little error between people. Cons: the time is long and people might drop out, move, change their mind, the timeframe is very long, the major issue is that we do not know what was going with those people who dropped out, they could represent a very important finding in the study. Another disadvantage is that they are very expensive and time consuming, and there are very few people who would wait 20 years for their study to be completed. • Cross-sectional design: compare different age groups at time 1 and notice how they differ. Preferred to longitudinal in some cases because they are cheaper, but we get differences between the age groups that might contaminate the data. Cohort effect: differences in the groups that are not due to the group or variables, they are due to the generational influences of the time they were born. Ex: people born during WWII, those children were shorter, less developed than children born 10 years later. Cohort effects are seen when a major societal changed has a happened. Another one is the feminist movement, women in the fifties and nineties and two thousands are different, the self-esteem increased. Thomas, Chess and Birch (1970) • 3 basics temperamental styles o Easy 40% o Slow to warm up 15% o Difficult 10% o Mixed 35% Early development: attachment style • Attachment is close emotional bonds that develop between infants and their caregivers, primarily the mother . Separation anxiety • Ainsworth (1979) o The stranger situation study and patterns of attachment o Baby and a mother placed in a room and the mom was close and a stranger enters the room. The researcher looks at the baby's responds. Then the mother leaves the any with the stranger. They look at the baby's reaction 1. Secure 65% baby is upset when mother leaves, cries and begs to come back and easily comforted by the mother . 2. Anxious-ambivalent 10% baby is inconsolable, very anxious and it is visible when the stranger enters the room. When the mom comes back they are not easily comforted. 3. Avoidant 20% they are unphased when the stranger comes in, and confused when the mom leaves. When she comes back they avoid her, like a punishment. 4. Disorganized/ disoriented 5-10% children that are not consistent with what they do and want. Developing secure attachment • Bonding at birth, daycare, and cultural factors. If you are able to trust vs not establishes relationship patterns with others. Develops under a variety of factors, how involved the mother
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