CHAPTER 10 HUMAN MOTIVATION
• An area of psychological sciences exploring the factors of what energizes
Motivational theories and concepts
1. Energizing: prompts you to do something
2. Directive : know what the motivation is
3. Persistence : how much you want to achieve something
4. Strength : see above
• Homeostasis : state whose equilibrium has been disturbed
• Drive : psychological state that motivates us to satisfy needs
• Need : state of biological or social deficiency
• Regulation by external stimuli
• Maximizing reproductive success
Biological and social motives
• No absolute distinction
Inherent growth : people have 3 inherent growth tendencies.
Basic premise: humans are naturally active and seek opportunities to learn and grow.
1. Autonomy: person's perception that they control their lives.
2. Competence: feeling that you are getting better at what you're doing. Controlling
3. Relatedness: need to interact with others make other people’s lives more
Type of motivation
For both the behaviour might the same, but the motivation is different
• Intrinsic: inherently interesting, enjoyable.
• Extrinsic: reward motivation, avoiding punishment. (ex: education, good grades
is a reward.)
The over-justification effect
External incentives (extrinsic) decrease people's motivation (intrinsic) to perform a task.
Incentives are not always effective and intrinsic motivations are more effective.
Motivation of hunger (what determines what you eat)
What determines what we eat:
• Habits (eating every day at noon)
• Culture (aphrodisiacs are believed in some cultures) • Brain
Glucose and digestive regulation system theory
• Glucostatic theory: neurons sensitive to glucose levels, however glucose levels
don't fluctuate very quickly.
Hormonal regulation theory
Hypothalamus and eating
• Middle region (hyperfagia)
• Outer region (afagia)
Food and reward
• Pre-frontal cortex (dopamine)
o Overweight people
o Normal weight people
Why is dieting so difficult
• Set-point theory: people are born with a set weight. If your weight changes, your
• Settling point theory: Our organism has a healthy range and your weight can
fluctuate within the range.
Eating and weight
BMI = weight (kg)/ height (m )
**video fattest people on earth
What is your favourite activity?
• Sex, ahead of sleeping and eating.
Sex is very important
• Present in most areas of people’s life. Family, competition, art, creativity. Sex is
on our mind 24/7 whether we go to the gym, groom, flirt, study, it is to get to
There are creatures without sex
• Sex serve as an evolutionary purpose
Determining Desire Hormonal regulation
• Estrogens (F)
o Testosterone (M) (Males have 300-1000 ng/dL of blood. Females have
• Hormones regulates mating
Humans (more complicated)
• Pheromones have inconclusive results
• Aphrodisiacs have very little empirical results
Coolidge effect: a new sexual partner reviving interest
• Attractiveness of the partner, novelty.
o Animal studies
o Refractory period is reduced or eliminates with the introduction of a new
o More powerful in males
• Story: US president, visited a farm and Mrs. Coolidge saw a male rooster
copulate non-stop. She said: How many times does he do that a day? Guy:
Several times. Her: Tell that to the president. President after: Same hen every
time? Guy: No different ones. President: Tell that to my wife.
• Shown to increase desire for up to a few hours
• Effective for males and females
• Extends to other species (Monkeys. Were shown a monkey’s ass and were
Gender differences in sexual behaviour
• Parental investment theory: A parent’s investment in an individual offspring
increases the chance of survival of the offspring at the cost of the ability of the
parents to invest in other offspring.
• Sex and parental investment
o Females are choosy, picky because they have a higher level of
investment, they carry the baby and protect it.
o Males want anonymous sex, many times sex, and lower level of
o Males compete for females, and females choose males. Males go for
young attractive women and females choose strong, powerful and older
Sexual variety • FSU studies (1970, 1980) : Women and men from attractive to average.
Approached people from the other sex and asked one of 3 questions:
Gender Go out with me? Come to my apt? Sex tonight?
Female (pos. 56% 6% 0%
Male (pos. ans.) 50% 69% 75%
• A continuum. Alfred Kinsey accounted for differences in females and males and
gave a questionnaire. Sexual orientation for females is malleable, for makes less
plastic. A woman might switch her preferences, not men.
• Theories to account for homosexual behaviour (failed)
o Environmental: detached father, strong mother
o Biological: hormonal imbalance during pregnancy, child becoming gay
o Genetic predisposition
• Asexual. Deficiency in sexual desire, no attraction, no fantasies, no desire.
o 1% of the population
o Not to be confused with the lack of desire caused by hormones and other
irregularities. This does not depend on hormones, just a lack of sexual
motivation. They are not unhappy and they do not enjoy life less. Lots of
o Women are more likely to be. 70% of the 1% of the population are
The human sexual response
The achievement motivation
Need to excel. Innate drive to be good at something
• Work harder/persistence
• Pursue competitive careers (moderate tasks to avoid failure)
• Situational influence in achievement motives
o Strength of motivation, probability of success
• Fear of failure
The marshmallow test
A woman tells a kid in a room alone with a marshmallow that he can eat it now
but if he waits he’ll have a second one. The kids who waited will apparently do
better in life.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Measures motivation. Ambiguous picture in black and white. Asked to make a
story. If people attribute roles to them and especially a woman giving the woman
a big role has higher achievement motivation. Psychoanalysis. Used for need of
power, intimacy and motivation.
Element of emotional experience
• Ability to interpret an emotion. Subjective conscious experience
• Might describe it in positive and negative aspects
• Bodily (autonomic) arousal. Not within people’s control
• Expression of emotions (body language, facial expression)
• Facial feedback hypothesis (Muscles send signal to brain and brain recognizes)
o When people smile, the muscles send a positive signal to the brain and it
leads to happier emotions. Can be faked, can be controlled, can be
• Duchenne smile (Genuine smile)
o Zygomatic major muscles + orbicularis oculi muscles
Theories of emotions
o Feel afraid because pulse is racing.
o We can recognize an emotion because we are aware of our physiological
o Problem: our body reacts the same way in different situations, theory
does not account for that.
o Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the frontal cortex and ANS.
o The brain interprets the situation and you get physiological responses.
o Seeing a bear vs being on a date = fear vs nervousness
• Schacter’s two-factors theory
o Look for external cues to decide what to feel
o Bears at the zoo vs bear in the wild = fear vs no fear
• Evolutionary theories
o Innate reactions with a little cognitive interpretation
o Fear: survival. The adaptive value is evident.
o Happiness: bonding, cooperation. Happiness serves important survival
purposes. (Positive psychology. Branch of psychology as a response to
o Disgust has an evolutionary advantage because it signals what is harmful.
Anger serves a protection purpose
CHAPTER 11 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT • Development psychology explores the changes that occur from time of
conception until one’s death
1. Germinal stage (First 2 weeks)
• Conception, implantation, placenta.
2. Embryonic stage (2 weeks – 2 months)
• Great vulnerability, vital organs develop or baby will be born abnormal.
3. Fetal stage (2 months – birth)
• Bodily growth continues, movement begins, brain cells multiply.
• Age of viability (22-23 weeks) If the baby is born premature, it has a
higher chance of surviving. By 26-28 weeks, survival rate is 85%
How is sex determined
• Egg is fertilized by sperm
o Egg cells have an X chromosome, sperm is either X or Y. As we know,
females are XX and males are XY.
o For up to 6 weeks the baby is sexless
o SRY region.
At 6 weeks, it activates and males hormones react. If all is good, it
is a male, if SRY is not activates, it is a female, an XY female. SRY
also regulates movement coordination.
o Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease more present in males.
Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
• Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological
problems, and psychopathology
Maternal drug use
• Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs (marijuana)
• Foetal Alcohol syndrome
o Impairs brain development
Actuate pain responses
o Bio behavioural markers
o Critical brain areas involved in regulating pain responses
Altered stress regulation
Maternal illness • Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza
Heel lance effect
Found to be similar to the ones of babies that were born from moms who took
antidepressants during pregnancy. Whatever affects the mom affects the baby.
Disruption in pain regulatory system and serotonin levels. It can't detect if it is
threatened or pain response. Pain is a very important marker. Alcohol affects the
way the organism controls pain.
The childhood years: motor development
• Cephalocaudal trend - head to foot. Movements starts from the head before it
moves the torso.
• Proximodistal trend - centre outward. First children control the torso and then will
move their limbs.
Developmental norms - median age (ranges)
• Cultural variations - depends on how the bay is brought up, depending on the
caregivers, the earlier it will gain mobility, if more attention is given and more
interactions with people. Genetics and environment are factors on maturation
• Variation in age of developmental milestones
Easy and difficult babies
Temperament is used to describe personality of babies, combination of mood,
activity level, and emotional reactivity.
Longitudinal vs cross-sectional designs.
• Longitudinal: follows a group of children, of different ages, follows them for a
period of time. We can test them at predetermined moment on the timeline from
time 1 to time 2, or wait for time to pass by and compare from beginning to end.
Pros: because we are following the same people, there is very little error
between people. Cons: the time is long and people might drop out, move,
change their mind, the timeframe is very long, the major issue is that we do not
know what was going with those people who dropped out, they could represent a
very important finding in the study. Another disadvantage is that they are very
expensive and time consuming, and there are very few people who would wait
20 years for their study to be completed.
• Cross-sectional design: compare different age groups at time 1 and notice how
they differ. Preferred to longitudinal in some cases because they are cheaper,
but we get differences between the age groups that might contaminate the data.
Cohort effect: differences in the groups that are not due to the group or
variables, they are due to the generational influences of the time they were born.
Ex: people born during WWII, those children were shorter, less developed than children born 10 years later. Cohort effects are seen when a major societal
changed has a happened. Another one is the feminist movement, women in the
fifties and nineties and two thousands are different, the self-esteem increased.
Thomas, Chess and Birch (1970)
• 3 basics temperamental styles
o Easy 40%
o Slow to warm up 15%
o Difficult 10%
o Mixed 35%
Early development: attachment style
• Attachment is close emotional bonds that develop between infants and their
caregivers, primarily the mother .
• Ainsworth (1979)
o The stranger situation study and patterns of attachment
o Baby and a mother placed in a room and the mom was close and a
stranger enters the room. The researcher looks at the baby's responds.
Then the mother leaves the any with the stranger. They look at the baby's
1. Secure 65% baby is upset when mother leaves, cries and begs to
come back and easily comforted by the mother .
2. Anxious-ambivalent 10% baby is inconsolable, very anxious and it is
visible when the stranger enters the room. When the mom comes
back they are not easily comforted.
3. Avoidant 20% they are unphased when the stranger comes in, and
confused when the mom leaves. When she comes back they avoid
her, like a punishment.
4. Disorganized/ disoriented 5-10% children that are not consistent with
what they do and want.
Developing secure attachment
• Bonding at birth, daycare, and cultural factors. If you are able to trust vs not
establishes relationship patterns with others. Develops under a variety of factors,
how involved the mother