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ENGR 202 Final: E+S_2010

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ENGR 202
John Hadjinicolaou

ENGR 202 Midterm 2010 #1 What is the relationship between environmental engineering and sustainable development? Sustainable development is the dynamic development of quality of life in which we enhance and protect earth life system's support and environmental engineering is the use of science and engineering declines to reduce the negative impact we have on the environment from human activity #2 Name three activities that impacts soil quality. - hazardous wastes ( solvents, organic chemicals, petroleum products, paints etc.) - Farming - construction activities - Mining #3 Name three activities that impact water quality. - point sources : * outfall pipe from a factory * wastewater treatment plant - non point sources: * Runoff from agricultural lands * erosion from mining 5 4 #4 If the equivalent CO2 emissions are reduced from 1.26x10 to 7.6x10 by replacing coal with natural gas, what is the % reduction emission? ((1.26 – .76 )/ 1.26 ) x 100 = 39.68 % #5 What is the difference between primary and secondary air quality? The Clean Air Act, which was last amended in 1990, requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for wide-spread pollutants from numerous and diverse sources considered harmful to public health and the environment. The Clean Air Act established two types of national air quality standards. Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of "sensitive" populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against visibility impairment, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings. The Clean Air Act requires periodic review of the science upon which the standards are based and the standards themselves #6 Define acid rain by describing how it is formed. Carbon dioxide in the air (pollutants from burning things), sulfur oxides and nitric oxides combine with water in the air and produce their respective acids in the moisture, which falls as rain or snow. The oxides are a gas when in the air, but when absorbed by liquid water particles suspended in the air, they remain suspended as a liquid. Explained as if your 5: Acids dissolve into water. Rain is made of water. Acid rain is just rain which is more acidic than normal. It can happen whenever. It happens because acids will dissolve in water. It can negatively impact the environment and buildings. Anywhere there are high levels of acid concentration. #7 What do the following acronyms stand for? Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary, room-temperature conditions. CAA (Clean Air Act): In 1963, the Congress passed the Clean Air Act(CAA), calling for studies of air pollution effects and making the individual states responsible for setting air quality standards. This Act allowed different states and local legislation to have a set of uniform national air quality standards to protect human health. These standards were developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) . The five major pollutants identified were: particulate matter (PM) , sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground-level ozone(O3) which are known as criteria air pollutants. Later in 1978, lead (Pb) was added. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards(NAAQS) for the six criteria air pollutants are expressed in terms of volumetric and mass concentrations. For most pollutant there are primary (health-related) standards and secondary standards. As a result, the federal government set limits on allowable emissions from new sources of air pollution such as new automobiles. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang
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