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Study Guide

BIOL 115- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 51 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 115
Professor
Sarah Woolley
Study Guide
Final

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McGill
BIOL 115
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1. make observations
2. form a testable question
will allow you to set up an experiment to learn the answer
measurable
3. propose a hypothesis (testable, falsifiable)
4. test the hypothesis (experimental manipulation)
5. assess, reject or accept all or part of the hypothesis, start all over again at step 1
STUDIES
Correlations
do not imply causation
correlations help point out what to test, just cannot assume they are causal
Sampling and Sample Size
representative of population
large
Validity
internal: study is well-designed and free from biases or confounds
external: can generalize to a larger population based on your data sample
STATS
Mean
average
Variance
distance of each point from the mean
Standard Deviation
square root of the variance
EVALUATING SCIENCE
characteristics of bad science
sensationalized headlines
INTRODUCTION
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misinterpreted results
conflict of interests
correlation and causation
speculative language
sample size too small
unrepresentative samples
no control group
no blind testing
cherry-picked results
unreplicable results
journals and citations
check funding
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