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Lab Exam Review - Rat Chart.docx

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

Organism Rat  Arteries: carry blood away from the heart under high blood pressure Circulatory (pulse can be found and are elastic) System  Veins: return blood back to the heart under low pressure (no pulse and not elastic) one wave valves are present to prevent back flow  Capillaries: vessels located in the tissues connecting the arteries and veins, exchange nutrients, gases and wastes between the blood and tissue  Diaphragm: natural dome shape Respiratory o All muscle fibers are arranged radially around its edge so that System when they contract, they flatten the central portion of the dome. o Divides the coelom into the anterior thoracic cavity and a posterior abdominal cavity o Repeated contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm enables mammals to inhale and exhale o Acts as the floor of the airtight thoracic cavity and compromises an important component of the respiratory pump  Sternum: breastbone, the ribs are attached o Projecting from the posterior end of the sternum is a cartilaginous flap, called the xiphoid cartilage  Ribs: enclose the thoracic cavity o Intercostal muscles between the ribs assist in ventilation  Pleural membrane: the whole thoracic cavity is lined with this membrane  Thymus gland: functions as part of the immune system o Lies on top of the heart, light brown tissue mass o White blood cells (lymphocytes) formed in the red bone marrow mature into T-cells  Trachea: anterior to the heart o Windpipe o Opening is called the glottis which is guarded by a flap of tissue called the epiglottis (prevents food from entering the respiratory system) o Rings of cartilage that strengthen the walls of the tube and give it a striated appearance o Clavicle: collar bone  The Trachea forks into two bronchi (one to each lung) o Bronchi branch to the bronchioles, which end in microscopic clusters of sac-like air chambers called alveoli (gas exchange occurs)  Mouth: contain incisor teeth, tongue and palate (roof) of mouth Digestive o Small molars in the back of the mouth used for grinding food System material nipped off by incisors o Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth with the chewing of food o Enzymes present in saliva begin the process of chemical digestion of starches  Esophagus: parallel to the trachea, attaches to the pharynx (throat) all the way to the stomach  Stomach: covered by the lobes of the liver o Storage chamber as well as a site of mixing and mechanical/chemical digestion o Glands lining the stomach secrete gastric juices containing HCl acid and enzymes to involve in the breakdown of proteins  Spleen: brown, no connection with the digestive system o Accessory organ to the circulatory system: acts as a reservoir for blood and destroys damaged red blood cells  Small Intestine: stomach opens into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter (muscular valve controlling the flow of food from the stomach to the small intestine o Long, thin, coiled tube where most chemical/nutrient digestion takes place o First few cm is the duodenum (connected to the liver and pancreas via duct) o Jejenum: follows the duodenum (1/2 the length of the small intestine) o Ileum: remaining portion of the small intestine o Small intestine is 6 lengths the times of the body o Villi: small finger like projections of the inner lining which increases the absorptive capacity of the small intestine
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