HIST 203: Canada Since 1867
The Peoples of Canada: A Post-Confederation History – J.M. Bumsted
Chapter 1: Completion of Confederation 1867-1873
1865 - Newfoundland assembly debates Confederation
1866 - BC and Vancouver Island are united
1867 - Dominion of Canada is proclaimed on July 1 . Parliament rejects petition for reconsideration of Nova Scotia’s
membership in Canada. William McDougall introduced resolutions for Canadian expansion
1868 -Joseph How lead repeal delegation from Nova Scotia to London
Howe reluctantly supports confederation. Newfoundland debates prospective terms of union. This is the main campaign
issue in 1869 election, which sees union candidates defeated. Howe joins Canadian cabinet. Governor Musgrave moves
from newfoundland to BC. Metis led by Louis Riel organize resistance to Canadian take over and set up provisional
1870 – PEI rejects Canada’s offer of better terms. Execution of Thomas Scott. Debate over union in Legislative Council of
BC. Negotiations BC and Canada over union. Red River admitted to Confederation as province of Manitoba. Wolseley
expedition ‘invades’ Manitoba
1871 – BC enters Confederation. PEI begins railroad construction.
1872 – Responsible government comes to BC. PEI opens union question.
1873 – PEI delegates secretly negotiate terms with Canada. PEI joins Confederation.
Prince Edward Island
- For PEI an important motive was settlement of the long-standing land issue
- Islanders would be such a small portion of the confederation, their voice would not be heard
- 1871 – PEI legislature began on a course of active railway construction. The main objective was that it would
lead to union with Canada.
- The dominion assume the Island’s debt and liabilities, agreed to pay a debt allowance, annual grant and a
- July 1 1873 – PEI joins Canada
- By later 1860s – deteriorating economic conditions made the prospect of union appealing
- Catholic vote was firmly opposed to union
- Canada was content to wait for Newfoundland to come around
- 1949 – they would finally join Canada
- Complained about the cost of expansion
- Wanted relations with the Maritimes and the union government sorted out before embarking on a project of
continental expansion that would make Maritime secession more difficult
- Canada has no understanding of the local issues involved (First Nations)
- With expressions of ignorance and racism, Canadian parliament had endorsed westward expansion and bring of
civilization to the North West
- HBC bargained hard, eventually agreed to sell territory including Red River to Canada
- By early autumn of 1869, the Canadians were clearly perceived as a threat to the land, language and religion of
the local inhabitants, the Metis.
- Louis Riel emerged to lead the Metis - 7 Dec 1869 – Riel issued Declaration of provisional government to replace Council of Assiniboia. He (president)
offered to negotiate with Canada on terms of Red River entry into Confederation
- 4 March 1870 – Thomas Scott was killed (death penalty) – all Ontario was upset about murder of an innocent
young Orangemen whose only offense was held to be his loyalty to Canada
- May 1870 – Manitoba Act was passed – act granted provincial status to Manitoba
- Rest of the territory transferred to Canada by HBC was initially administered under the legislation passed by the
Canadian Parliament in 1869
- Not until 1872 was a territorial council appointed
- 1905 – region would achieve provincial status as Saskatchewan and Alberta
- 1866 - colonies of BC and Vancouver island joined by British government in hopes of resolving difficult economic
and political problems
- Province would have a rail link with Canada
- July 1871 – BC entered Confederation as 6 province with Joseph Trutch as lieutenant governor
- Remain highly isolated from rest of Canada until after railway was completed in 1885
- Development of new land policy opened the province up for the massive pre-emption rights for those who had
squatted on land, as well as free land grants
- Transfer to the Dominion the responsibility for Indian Policy
Chapter 2: Envisioning the New Nation, 1867-1885
1868 – Canada National Series of readers introduced into Ontario schools
1870 – Dominion Notes Act passed
1871 – Canada signs the treaty of Washington, Bank Act passed
1872 – Ontario Society of Artists formed, Passage of Dominion Lands Act
1873 – Pacific Scandal, MacDonald government resigns; Alexander Mackenzie leads new Liberal government. North West
Mounted Police established.
1875 – Supreme Court of Canada established.
1876 – Treaty Six signed of Fort Carlton. Indian Act of 1876 passed by Canadian Parliament.
1878 – MacDonald’s Conservatives returned to power.
1880 – Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and National Gallery of Canada established.
1881 – John Bourinot published the Intellectual Development of the Canadian People. First western real estate boom in
1882 – Royal Society of Canada established. Picturesque Canada published
1883 – Qu’appelle Settler’s Rights Association calls for reform.
1884 – Mercier tables resolutions on federal encroachments on provincial power. First Nations hold Thirst Dance in
Saskatchewan on Poundmaker’s reserve. Louis Riel invited back to Canada. Riel sends long petition to Ottawa.
1885 – Battle of Duck Lake (March). Battle of Batouche (May). Treason trial of Louis Riel (July). Eight aboriginal warriors
executed for their part in the uprising (November). Public gathering in Montreal protests Riel execution. Last spike in CPR
line driven at Craigellachie,BC on 7 Nov. Riel executed nine days later.
Quest for National Policies
- Treaty of Washington – marking Americans’ recognition of Canada as a separate entity
- Confederation suggested an economic future that was generally encouraging to foreign investment – import lots
of capital to help create its economic infrastructure – railroads were prime target for foreign investment - Pacific Scandal – Allan provided government with money for 1872 election campaign, Macdonald unable to
avoid charge of corruption – November 1873 – government resigned and replaced by a Liberal government
headed by another Scot, a former stonemason turned building contractor named Alexander Mackenzie
- 1875 – bill creating the Supreme Court
- Canadian Nationalism would come to be dominated by Quebec and issues of cultural nationalism
- Canada First – One of the group’s founders – Robert C. Haliburton – looked down their noses not only at
Aboriginals people and Metis but at the French as well, seeing them as a bar to progress and to the extension of
a great Anglo-Saxon Dominion across the Continent – tended to visualize the new nation as seamlessly uniting
the colonies of British North America in a single entity – and to forget that those old colonies contained several
quite disparate cultural traditions
- Canadians were trying to define a new national identity after Confederation
- Education – school systems – their accessibility and universality. BNA’s first Free Public Education Act – schools
were fully financed by the state, passed in PEI in 1852, but in posts Confederations period all the provinces
moved to public funding and schooling became increasingly universal
- Royal Society of Canada was founded (1882) to promote research and learning in the arts and sciences
- The new Canadian nationality remained fragile, more than a little precious and very racious
- The government did not have the money to develop the territory as quickly as it and the incoming settlers,
would have preferred
- As the government struggled with the Riel insurrection in Red River and then the new province of Manitoba,
Quebecers became increasingly protective of the rights of French Canadians, including the Metis in the region
- 1872 – Canadian parliament passed the Dominion Lands Act
- In its eagerness to get the prairies populated, Canada also encouraged the settlement of various ethnic
communities from Europe, usually through promises to immigrants leaders to provide blocks of land for self-
contained ethnic settlement
- North West Mounted Police established (1873) to act as a quasi-military agent of the Canadian government in
the west – Mounties moved into the West ahead of the settlers and have always symbolized a peaceful process
of westward expansion, in contrast to the violence of the wild American west
- Most of the Aboriginal bands on the prairies had singed the numbered treaties, the government consolidated
the laws regarding Aboriginals into one omnibus piece of legislation, the Indian Act of 1876
- Most Aboriginal leaders knew that their traditional way of life was disappearing forever. But the Department of
Indian Affairs expected them to become self-sufficient virtually over night
- Reserve land tended to be marginal, the assistance supplied was inadequate and the attitude of many of the
Indian agents (the government’s representatives on the reserves) was basically unsympathetic
- Metis were systematically pushed to the margins – the Prime Minister regarded the mixed-bloods as needing
merely to be kept down by a strong hand until they are swamped by the influx of settlers
- The land rights that had been guaranteed to the Metis were gradually whittled down and much of the land itself
ended up in the hands of speculators
- In the late spring of 1884 – Riel was initiating a peaceful movement of protest against Canadian policies
- MacDonald was determined to crush this uprising quickly and sent a military force under Major-General
Frederick Middleton- by way of the new Canadian Pacific Railway- to put it down
- Uprising was over by May 12 – Riel was arrested – formal charge of high treason given death penalty (July 6),
hung on November 16 1885
- MacDonald government used the rebellion and the violence committed by the leaders of the First Nations as
pretexts to crush the protests against the failure to observe the negotiated treaties
- Poundmaker stood trial for treason and was sentenced to 3 years in prison. Released after a year, but died four
months later. Big Bear received similar sentence but was released after a year and a half - The trials were conducted in a highly improper manner. Few of the accused were properly represented in court,
and translation was inadequate for people who understood little English and less of Canadian la
- Execution of Riel had a lasting impact on Canada (particularly Quebec) – strengthened French-Canadian
nationalism and turn voters away from the Conservative Party
- 7 November 1885 – nine days before Riel’s death – CPR was completed in Craigellachie in Eastern BC –
construction was carried out by 6500 Chinese labourers who were specially imported for the job – many died
and those who survive were summarily discharged when the was over – with the completion of the CPR the
Canadian government moved swiftly to limit Chinese immigration
- The rail road became physical symbol of a transcontinental nation that now existed in fact as well as in the
Chapter 5: Rural Canada 1885-1914
- 1882 – Cannington Manor established in southeastern Saskatchewan
- 1885 – Aboriginal people pressured to become farmers
- 1886 – Dominion Experimental Farms are established. Dower rights abolished in the North West Territories
- 1891 – Massey-Harris established to manufacture farm implements
- 1898 – A.J. Cotton of Treherne, Manitoba, harvests 17 000 bushels of number one hard.
- 1900 – Shift to mixed farming begins in eastern Canada. Fruit-growing develops in Annapolis Valley, Niagara
Peninsula, and Okanagan Valley
- 1906 – Marquis wheat is developed
- 1908 – The Grain Growers Guide established
- 1910 – Farmers establish their own system of grain elevators
- 1912 - Opening of Abitibi region.
- 1914 – Georgina Binnie-Clark published Wheat and Woman
- 1916 – Robert J.C. Stead’s The Homesteaders published. Louis Hemon’s Maria Chapdelaine published.
- Most Canadians in the years 1885- 1914 still lived in rural areas, either in small communities or on isolated
farms, and agriculture was the dominant economic enterprise
- The family grew as much food as possible for personal consumption; the farmer’s instinct was to keep the
increasing acreage under production. Before WW1, mechanization was limited mainly to harvesting. Animals
(horses and oxen) did most of the ploughing and cultivation
- In all regions, rural success depended on the labour of the family members, especially the women
- Settlement of the West was undoubtedly a major event of the years between 1885-1914
- Not until opening of the CPR, and the subsequent development of branch lines north and south, could the
production of western wheat really take off
- Women’s family responsibilities tended to be much more demanding than the man’s; including kitchen, garden
and livestock (needed more regular tending than grain field) but also the family
- What pioneer women complained most about, however, was the isolation they experienced, since farm-houses
were a couple of kilometers or more apart
- Hired-hand became a feature in many operations. A farmhand was usually required to board at the farm, and
many farmhands were treated like family members
- Young children brought over from Britain by charitable institutions hoping to give them a fresh start – some
were orphans, encouraged to emigrate by impoverished parents, some seized and sent for their own good - Wheat boom of 1895-1914 made conditions considerably less harsh
- Pace of agricultural mechanization, (time-consuming and labour-intensive harvest process) increased
- 1891 – Massey-Harris – leading farm implement manufacturer in the British Empire
- Another important development came in the processing and shipment of food-stuffs, particularly the use of
canning as a means of preservation. The use of refrigeration for shipping and new processes for the production
and preservation of dairy products were equally influential – also the telephone invented
- The quantities of arable land available were declining and prices were rising in this period
- History of rural Canada in this period continued to be one of the constant mobility and family fragmentation
- Agro-Fishing and Agro-Forestry - One survival strategy for displaced farmers was to work part time in a local
resource industry – fishing or lumbering – emergence of new markets – encouraged many farmers to
supplement their agricultural income with fishing during relatively short seasons
- Agro-Industry – rise of factories designed to process farm produce or resource products (such as fish and
shellfish) offered opportunities for part-time employment – seasonal in their operations
- Implications of Occupational Pluralism – enabled families to remain together by providing extra income to
supplement limited agricultural production. It was an alternative to migration and in many regions it was seen as
preferable to full time urban employment. Such a strategy usually geared to seasons, left time for hunting in the
autumn and provided a break from the drudgery of regular work, particularly for men. However also associated
with inferior agricultural practices and work attitudes – some income was derived less from farming then from
other work, the land did not have to be effectively and expertly cultivated. Marginal lands could be kept in
cultivation and the farm owner did not have to make hard economic decisions contributed to the difficulty of
labour organisation in rural sectors of the economy
- Canadian rural society was hierarchical. Even the basic unit – the family farm – was organized in hierarchical
lawyers – with the farther at the top, the male children favored over the female and a considerable gap between
family and hired help
- One factor that stratified rural society was prosperity but another was persistence
- The School – evidence of a local community (and a school district the only sign of political organization) – the
school year was commonly geared to the agricultural season
- The Churches – many villages in rural Canada had at least one church. Since members of the same ethnic group
tended to cluster together, the range of denominations within a given area was usually small
- Native People – First nations needed help to make transition from nomadic life based on hunting and gathering
to a settled agricultural life and they did not always receive it, although the situation improved after 1885 –
equipment (especially threshing machinery/grist mills) tended to be in short supply in many places
- By the late 19 century even small town Canada was beginning to change – church attendance was starting to
decline, since the development of the CPR – industry brought to small towns in eastern and central Canada.
Social relations were becoming strained between the middle classes and the factory workers who were
increasingly in evidence in may small towns – and in the west class conflict began to emerge between
prosperous farmers and hired hands or the crews of threshing contractors
Chapter 8: The Era of Social Reform, 1885-1914
1870 – England passes Married Women’s Property Act
1870s – Knights of Labor spread to Canada from US
1874 – WCTU founded in Owen Sound, Ontario
1876 – Emily Stove creates first suffrage organization in Canada
1883 – Chinese ‘coolies’ arrive to build the Canadian Pacific Railway
1886 – Quebec Board of Health created 1893 – Montreal Local Council of Women founded. Notional Council of Women founded.
1894 – Fred Victor Mission founded in Toronto
1896 – Clifford Sifton expands sources for Canadian immigration to include Southern and Eastern Europe
1897 – First Women’s Institute founded. Clara Martin first women in the British Empire admitted to practices
1904 – All People’s Mission founded in Winnipeg by J.S. Woodsworth
1906 – New Immigration Act passed to regulate immigration more carefully
1907 –Anti-Oriental riots in Vancouver. Federation nationale Sainte Jean Baptiste founded in Quebec. Moral and
Social Reform Council of Canada organized.
1910 – Cabinet is empowered to regulate immigration
1912 – Social Services Council Established.
1914 – Social Services Congress held in Toronto.
- Campaigns against vices – churches were no longer doing their jobs – the two favourite target for this sort of
reform were alcohol and prostitution
- Associating the struggle of one or another campaign against social evil with a holy war to ensure the purity of
future generations –
- Vice, crime, and poverty were commonly associated by the moral reformers, but oftenthere was no clear idea of
which these evils needed to be addressed first
- One of the principle concerns of the early reformers involved the single women working for wages in the larger
- City planning was one aspect of this project and was strongly supported by professional architects who
combined an urge to plan the city as a whole with aesthetic considerations of coherence, visual variety and civic
- Another wing of reform was associated with various professional groups that became involved in social
problems through either their professional practice or work with private voluntary agencies – doctors
- One of the most common public health recommendations made by the medical profession was compulsory
inspection of school children
- Teachers were often in the front lines of reform, since adequate schooling was recognized as one of the best
ways to prevent children of the poor from following in their parents’ footsteps, and the only way to assimilate
the thousands of immigrants after 1896 who spoke neither English nor French
- The greatest problem was school attendance and it was in this period that provinces one by one confirmed the
principal of universal education by making school attendance compulsory to usually age 14
- Women’s Institutes were a movement founded in Canada in 1897 y Adelaide Hoodless at Stoney Creek, Ontario
– women’s institutes were intended to promote appreciate of rural living and also to encourage better
education of all women for motherhood and homemaking through extension of the principles of domestic
science, a subject rapidly developing around the turn of the century at the university level
Chapter 9: The Great War and Its Aftermath, 1914-1919
1909 – An imperial conference Canada agrees to create navy
1910 – House of Commons debates naval policy. In Ontario, battle over bilingual schools begins
1911 – Laurier government defeated, partly over Naval question
1914 – Canada enters the Great War, War Measures Act passed.
1915 – A revised Regulation 17 passed in Ontario.
1916 – British launch first tank attack.
1917 – National Wheat Board established to market wheat. Great War Veterans Association formed. Canada’s first
income tax introduced in July. Military Service Act becomes law in August. Wartime Elections Act passed in September. Union government created in October.
1918 – Women get federal vote. Federal government introduces prohibition. Letter carriers strike post office. War ends.
1919 – Exhibit of Canadian war art in London. Winnipeg General Strike and other sympathetic strikes. Soldier Settlement
1928 – Canadian Legion Organized
Mobilization for War
- Canada officially went to war at 2045 hours (Ottawa time) on 4 August 1914, as an automatic consequence of
the British declaration of war on Germany
- 10 August 1914, an Order-in-Canada permitted him to call 25 000 men to the colours
- One of the rules was that married men had to have the permission of their wives, many of whom dragged their
spouses out of the ranks while brandishing their marriage certificates
- 22 August Parliament passed War Measures Act – enabling the government to act in the defence of the realm
without consulting parliament.
- Canadian troops were kept together as units rather than being broken up and integrated into the British forces.
- New technologies – machines guns, tanks, submarines, airplanes, poison gas, radios, and telephones, cannons –
would make it possible to slaughter increasing numbers of soldiers and civilians alike
- Canadians well known as flying aces – Captain Billy Bishop, top-scoring Imperial pilot claiming 72 aerial victories
- For Canada, this lack of comprehension was best symbolized by the Ross rifle with which Sir Sam Hughes has
equipped most Canadian troops. The Ross was a splendid gun for sharpshooting and sniping, but its repeat
mechanism tended to overheat and jam, making it practically useless for rapid fire in mass assault situations
- At end of war airplanes and tanks made some breakthrough in the defensive stalemate on the Western Front
Life in the Trenches
- Nightmare – hard to describe by most returning veterans did not really try
- Shells, snipers, sickness and mud were the major culprits
- Soldiers carried more than 60 lbs of equipment and mud soaked army greatcoat could weight another 50 lbs
- The Great War produced a new form of nervous affliction that at the time was called shell shock but has more
recently been labelled as a form of traumatic stress disorder
- April 1915 – Ypres, the Royal Winnipeg Rifles withstood one of the first poison gas attacks, using for protection
nothing but handkerchiefs soaked in urine
- In Canada the greatest wartime debate concerned conscription, Canada had entered the war with an army made
up entirely of volunteers whose enthusiasm was predicated on the prospect of a swift victory
- By the time of the Canadian triumph at Vimy in April 1917, Canada could no longer recruit enough volunteers to
replace the mounting casualties and was finding it difficult to meet the military responsibilities it had agreed to
shoulder. Conscription was seen as the only solution.
- Conscription ran directly against the grain of French-Canadian attitudes towards the war
- For English Canada, the war was an imperial obligation and Canada was falling short in its contribution; for
French Canada, the restrictions on Ontario Francophones justified resistance to supporting the war. Quebecers
responded to the government’s announcement of conscription in May 1917 with protest meetings across the
province, some of which turned to violence - Borden government introduced the Military Service Act into Parliament on 11 June. Declaring all male British
subjects aged 20 to 45 eligible for military service – with broad exemptions for those engaged in war work and
conscientious objectors – the bill became law in August 1917
War and Civil Liberties
- People from Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire found themselves under severe attack
- Before the war Germans had been privileged as an ethnic minority, considered superior to other minorities on
account of their northern qualities, but that privilege soon disappeared. Many towns changed their German
names: Berlin, Ontario became Kitchener, and Dusseldorf, Alberta became Freedom
- Wartime elections Act of September 1917 declared naturalized citizens ineligible to vote
War and Social Reforms
- During the war, several provinces had granted women the right to vote and women had been arguing for
general suffrage on several grounds, of which the most powerful was that they needed to vote in order to bring
the war to an end and to have a voice in post-war reconstruction
- Like female suffrage, prohibition also triumphed as a result of the war. It was seen as necessary not only for the
benefit of the soldiers, to ensure that the country they returned to would be a better place, but also for the war
effort, to prevent waste and inefficiency
- The federal government introduced national prohibition by Order-in-Council on 1 April 1918
Economy at War
- For Canada 1914 was not a good year – western wheat economy had collapsed, unemployment rates rose,
thousands of young Canadian who volunteered enlist were motivated not only be loyalty but also by the
absence of employment opportunities
Gains of War
- Canadian industrialists responded to the war with three successive strategies. First they tried to move into
markets the Germans had abandoned, chiefly in the US, without very much success, Canadian government
managed to convince the Imperial War Cabinet that it had he iron and steel capacity to churn out enough
artillery shells to supply the entire Allied force.
- By 1917 Canadian Industry was turning out ships, airplanes, and motor vehicles in record numbers
- In July 1917 he Borden Government introduced the nation’s first income tax, the following month Ottawa began
nationalizing the railways in response to the recommendation of a Royal Commission that had called for the
immediate nationalization of all railways except the CPR and those owned by Americans
- Agriculture especially western wheat production. From 1914 to 1919 in Canada as a whole, agricultural acreage
cultivated and wheat exports both doubled
Costs of War
- Farmers as particularly favoured by the war. Their young men could gain exemption from conscription and the
farmer’s war-time profits were enough to sustain the purchase of pianos, buggies etc.
- By the time conscription was introduced in 1917, there were few farmers’ sons left in the West to be exempt
- Encouraged farmers to expand marginal land and abandon most of the techniques of soil and moisture
conservation. Farmers got larger because of labour shortages, the land was often hastily cultivated
- In 1918 the Association of Letter Carriers went on strike- the first important strike in the public sector in
Canadian history Winnipeg General Strike
- 1919 in the form of radical strikes in a number of Canadian cities
- Recognition of union rights to organize, higher wages, better working conditions. But there were also some
underlying issues. One was the public hostility to enemy aliens during the war. Another was the sudden return
of demobilized veterans to a city that had no jobs for them and no plans to help them read- just to civilian life.
Still another was the agitation of a small number of radicals who were hoping to provoke social change
- The bulk of the city’s police force of 200 men was dismissed on 9 June, to be replaced by local militia units, the
Royal North West Mounted Police and 1800 special constables recruited and paid by the Citizens Committee of
1000 which represented the city’s business and professional elite
- Although the war had ended in November, it had taken the government many months to organize ocean
transport to bring the soldiers home
Dealing with the Veterans
- One is that no nation that had participated in the Great War did much better than Canada at dealing with its
- Canada did gradually develop some policies for dealing with returned soldiers, policies that would serve as the
basis for expanded social welfare during and after World War II
- The Canadian Association fo Returned Soldiers, formed in the midst of the war, became the Great War Veteran’s
Association in 1917 and eventually the Canadian legion, which by 1928 had 55 000 members in 594 branches
with 179 ladies auxiliaries
Chapter 10: Economy, Polity, and the Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice – 1919-1939
1918 – Spanish Flu pandemic begins. McLaughlin motor Co. sells out to GM.
1919 – Leacock write “The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice”. United Farmers of Ontario form minority government.
1921 – Progressive party wins 64 seats in house of commons, while Mackenzie King becomes Prime Minister. Growth of
Maritime Rights movement.
1922 – Labour unrest peaks in the coal fields. Lionel Groulx published L’appel de la race.
1925 – William Aberhart begins Prophetic Bible Institute broadcasts on CFCN
1929 – Stock market crashes in New York and Toronto.
1930 – R.B. Bennett’s Conservatives defeat King’s Liberals in federal election. Communist party creates a National
Unemployed Workers’ Association.
1931 – Depression really begins 741 000 unemployed in Canada. League for Social Reconstruction formed.
1932 – First credit union established by Antigonish Movement
1933 – Maurice Duplessis becomes leader of Quebec Conservative Party. CCf support Regina Manifesto. Duff Pattullo
elected in British Columbia.
1935 – R.B. Bennett announces a ‘New Deal’ and is defeated at polls. Social credit sweeps to power in Alberta. On-to-
Ottawa-trek ends in riot in Regina. Riots in downtown Vancouver.
1936 – Union Nationale wins 1936 Quebec election.
1937 – Padlock Act in Quebec against communism. Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial relations appointed.
Oshawa strike at GM.
- Spanish flu outbreak of 1918-1919 – Canadian deaths from flu ran ultimately to 50 000, only a few thousand
short of the number of deaths in battle
- Labour unrest continued to be most prevalent at the two ends of the country, with notable strikes in Cape
Breton, Alberta and BC, particularly in the coal fields. - The collapse of the international wheat market in 1921 and the beginning of a serious drought in West
- Quebec unhappy – developed its own protest movement in the form of Quebec Nationalism
- Ontario’s economy recovered from post-war problems quickly – Ford Motor Co. of Canada in Windsor, formed
in 1904 soon after Henry Ford began production in Detroit
- The pressure for a new national party came mainly from the west
- Crerar founded the Progressive Party and became its first leader – would merge eventually with the Co-
Operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in 1931
- Two disasters struck simultaneously – 1921- the bottom fell out of wheat prices, which dropped from 2$ per
bushel to less than 1$ for the 1922 crop, and drought conditions
- Maritime Rights movement, which combined a drive for equitable freight rates with various specific provincial
demands, producing widespread public agitation
- the wave of economic prosperity of the later 1920s was in large measures an artificial boom
- substantial increase in new housing construction (mainly in the suburban areas of larger cities) and a greater
wave of consumer spending on automobiles and various electrical appliances for the home
- Black Tuesday – 29 October 1929 – Wall Street led the way in record meltdown of stock prices that
encompassed every North American exchange including those in Canada
- Poorest victims of the Depression were the urban unemployed
- Study done suggested that working-class families, especially in Quebec had considerable capacity to adapt and
to find strategies for coping
- Bennett converted to his own version of a ‘New Deal’ – announced January 1935 – Bennett’s conversion to New
Dealism symbolized the political desperation of more than one politician
- William Aberhart, a fundamentalist radio preacher whose Sunday broadcasts over Calgary’s CFCN for the
Prophetic Bible Institute had a substantial following – economic scheme devised by a Scottish enfineer, Major
C.H. Douglas – enable people to buy more of the goods and services produced – Douglas advocated distributing
money or social credit – eventually set a 25$ a month to all citizens as part of their cultural heritage – 1935
Aberhart organized the Social Credit Party
- Maurice Duplessis and the Quebec Nationale in Quebec – catholic social action offered an alternative to
socialism that attempted to reconcile the need for reform with the teachings of the church
- Antigonish movement – Maritimes in the 1930s – struck a chord with people seeking some kind of transforming
solution to their problems
- Cooperative Commonwealth Federation – CCF founded in Calgary in 1932 as a coalition of farmers’
organizations, labour unions such as the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and labour-socialist
parties in the four western provinces
- Fabian Society – founded in England in 1884 – Fabians believed in the gradual conversion of society to socialism
through permeations of the body politic by indirect influence
o Regina Manifesto – all industry essential to social planning would be nationalized the former owners
suitably compensated – a series of universal welfare measures – hospitalization, health care,
unemployment insurance, pensions – would be introduced
- Communist Party of Canada – legal party in 1924 – Communists operated under several serious disadvantages;
charge that they were un-Canadian members of an international conspiracy, and willingness of the Canadian
government to repress the party in any way possible, using section 98 of Criminal Code – claimed credit for
organizing through the worker’s unity league, a mass march on Ottata in 1935 (On to Ottawa Trek) – trekkers were single young men who had taken refuge in the unemployment relief camps of BC but found the conditions
- Canada was admitted to the League of Nations as a full member, it became a regular if not influential participant
- Westminster Conference in 1930 – Bennett himself headed the Canadian delegation to London – Canada
became for all intents and purposes independent – a member of a Commonwealth of Nations that had no
binding authority over anyone and was united mainly by allegiance to a single ceremonial monarch
Chapter 11: Canadian Society and Culture between the Wars 1919-1939
1917 – First soldier settlement act passes parliament
1919 – soldier settlement scheme revamped. Eighty five radio stations operating in Canada. Canadian Bookman founded
1921 – Ku Klux Klan of the British Empire formed
1922 – 13% of Canada’s road are surfaced. Insulin discovered at U of T
1923 – Final treaty, in Northern Ontario, signed with First nations. Three large ocean liners leave the Clyde with Scottish
immigrant aboard. Canada is the second largest automobile producer in the world.
1925 – Partial reform of federal divorce laws. United Church of Canada is formed. Institute of Child Study is formed
1927 – Temperance ends in Ontario. All Canadian Congress of Labour formed
1928 – Aird Royal Commission on Broadcasting is appointed
1929 – Privy Council declares that women are ‘persons’. Grew Owl publishes The Men of the Last Frontier
1931 – First hockey game broadcast with commentary by Foster Hewitt
1932 – Broadcasting Act leads to formation of Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC). First Dominion Drama
1934 – Dionne quintuplets born.
1936 – Canadians are only Commonwealth athletes to give Nazi salute at opening ceremonies of Olympics. CRBC
becomes Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
1937 – Trans-Canada Airlines is formed. Oshawa strike of 1937. Governor General’s Awards are launched.
1938 – First Nations deaths from tb in BC run at 8.1 per 1000.
1940 – 10000 British school children approved for admission to Canada.
1941 – Dr. Henry Bruce Chown discovers the mechanism of RH hemolytic disease
1946 – Saskatchewan introduces no-fault auto insurance.
- Canada completed its demographic shift from an agrarian society to a modern one
o Rapid growth of cities, the gradual decline of rural population, the establishment of factories
- Immigration increased and brought with it racism
- Prohibition failed (and reform in general) - Failure of prohibition experiment symbolized the decline of reform of
the pre-war variety
- Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational churches amalgamated
- Automobiles and the radio as well as the transition of the airplane from war machine to transportation vehicle -
major innovations adopted en masse were the internal combustion engine and the radio. As well, the airplane
became a factor in Canadian transportation – cars were individually owned and operated as an extension of a
private household, representing private rather than public transport, radio provided entertainment
- Children became more important – focus on child care due to declining number of births , women were drawn
into work force – collapse of family as the fundamental social unit – large families less desirable – divorce rates
were new and rising
- Death rate drifted perceptibly downward throughout interwar period – people began to live past the age when
they could earn their own living, concern for old age pension increased
- Empire Settlement Act of 1922 – brought 130 000 British immigrants into country - Government discouraged all immigration during the depression except farmers with lots of capital
- 1 July 1923 – Chinese Immigration Act (Chinese Exclusion Act) – added to head tax restricting both immigration
of Chinese people and their mobilization once in Canada
- Common response to the economic crisis was to transfer the bread winning responsibilities from males to
female (cause they could work for lower wages) – public opinion turned against women, particularly married
women who held jobs that could be done by men – relief went to men
- In winter of 1921-1922 Banting and Dr. Charles Best discovered insulin as a treatment for diabetes mellitus
- Between war Canada’s love affair with American popular culture continued to flourish
- Books offered another avenue of escape
- Education was considered an important aspect of the reintegration of the Canadian soldier into the civilian
community after the Great War
- Student numbers remained fairly constant through out the interwar period although the universities constantly
cut their budgets, the number of women actually increased in many places
Chapter 12: World War II, 1939-1945
1928 – Canadian Institute of International Affairs (CIIA) is founded.
1937 – Frank Underhill calls for Canada to avoid European involvement. Mackenzie King meets with Hitler.
1938 – Germany and Allied sign Munich Agreement. Conference on the refugee problem held at Evian, France. Jewish
delegation pleads with Canadian government to admit refugees.
1939 – John Grierson becomes head of National Film Board. Canada declares war against Germany. British
Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) agreed to by Britain and Canada.
1940 – Roosevelt and King meet at Warm Springs, Georgia (April). C.D. Howe becomes minister of munitions and
supplies (April). Roosevelt and King meet at Ogdensburg, New York, and sign an agreement of co-operation (August).
Americans send British 50 destroyers under Lend Lease.
1941 – CBC News Service begins. Hyde Park Declaration issued. Concern is expressed over neglect of the humanities at
Canadian Universities. Federation of Canadian artists is founded. Pearl Harbour is attacked and Hong Kong falls.
1942 – Japanese are removed from the coast of BC. Rationing is introduced. Conscription plebiscite held. Dieppe disaster
occurs in August. First Canadian Army formed. Tories become Progressive Conservatives with john Bracken as leader and
adopt platform of social reform
1943 – Canadian cabinet discusses training female pilots. Canadians develop functionalism policy. A Canadian Northwest
Atlantic Theatre. Debate in Canada over reconstruction after the war. General McNaughton resigns as Chief of Staff.
UNRAA is formed. Canadian War Art program is established.
1944 – CCF wins in Saskatchewan. D-Day occurs on 6 June. Canadian cultural organizations meet in Toronto to prepare
brief to the government.
1945 – San Francisco Conference created United Nations.
- Canadian authorities displayed little interest in accommodating Jewish refugees and in 1938 actually began
restricting Jewish immigration. In 1939 Canada joined with US in rejecting immigrants of over 900 Jewish
refugees who were passengers on SS St Louis, which had sailed from Hamburg for Havana, Cuba on May 13 .
- When Hitler invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, Prime Minister summoned Parliament to meet a week later,
and on 10 September Canada joined Britain and France inn declaring war against Germany
- Canada’s war aims were the liberation of Europe and the restoration of democracy
- August 1940 – Permanent Joint Boar on Defence was set up – Ogdensburg Agreement
- April 1941 – Hyde Park Declaration – each country should provide the other with defence articles which it is best
able to produce and produce quickly and that production programmes should be coordinated to this end - British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCTAP)
- Three weaknesses emerged in Canada’s heavily managed wartime economy
o Perpetuation of regional disparities
o Industrial relations – increased labour militancy and strikes for better wages and working conditions
1944 – PCO 1003 to introduce the principles of compulsory recognition and collective bargaining
o Man power mobilization
Canadian Military Contribution
- Disastrous landing of the 2 Canadian Division at Dieppe in August 1942, more than half of the 5000 Canadians
were killed or captured.
- The first Canadian army formed in 1942 under the command of General A G L McNaughton was composed of 5
divisions that eventually were split between Italy and Northern Europe. Canadians were involved in the Allied
invasion of Italy beginning in January 1944 and D-Day invasion in Europe in June 1944
- Canadian soldiers fought as Canadian units throughout the conflict
- Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) were well integrated with British counterparts
- National plebiscite on conscription held in spring of 1942
- Quebec voted strongly against this option
- Quebec’s rate of participation in the armed forces ran at just over half the rates of the other nine provinces
- Conscription issue re-emerged in 1944 when military announced that it had become necessary to ship overseas
conscripts who had been drafted on the understanding that they would not be required to serve abroad
Planning for Post War Reconstruction
- Conservative party sensed the shift and replaced Meighen as leader with John Bracken, the long-time Premier of
Manitoba who insisted that the party rename itself Progressive Conservative and adopt a platform of social
- Women were expected from the outset to manage the home front, keeping track of rationing coupons and
tending victory gardens to supply extra food, also expected to enter wartime industries on an emergency basis
- At war’s end women constituted nearly 1/3 of the Canadian labour force
- Day care centres had been created to encourage women to work in critical industries
- Canada had a very limited view of conscientious objection, with National War Service Boards
- Japanese in BC created conflict; the Issei had themselves immigrated from Japan or Hawaii, Kibei were Canadian
born but Japanese educated and the Nisei were both born and educated in Canada
Management of Information
- CBC was to inspire the nation as a whole and every individual to greater effort. To put everyone in the proper
frame of mind to accept willingly the inevitable sacrifices involved in the war effort
Canada and the Peace
- 8 May 1945 – VE day
- Canada played virtually no part in the peace negotiations in either Europe or Asia because it had not been one of
the Great Powers
Chapter 13: Canada and the World, 1946-1972
1945 – Igor Gouzenko defects in Ottawa
1946 – Canada sells wheat to Britain at bargain prices. 1947 – Canada supports the partition of Palestine. New Citizenship Act becomes law.
1948 – Canada allowed to participate in Marshall Plan, but rejects North American free trade.
1949 – Canada takes lead in creation of NATO
1950 – Korean conflict begins
1954 – Canada becomes involved in Indochina as one of three members of International Commission for Supervision and
1955 – DEW Line established in Canadian North
1957 – L.B. Pearson wins Nobel Peace Prize. Herbert Norman commits suicide in Cairo. Diefenbaker government agrees
1959 – Diefenbaker terminates Avro Arrow project
1963 – Diefenbaker cabinet fractures over Bomarc missiles.
1965 – Pearson advocates a pause in the US bombing of Vietnam
1968 – Trudeau tries to reinvigorate Canadian foreign policy
1972 – Trudeau government proposes Third Option
- Act was passed on June 27 1946 and became law on 1 January 1947, The Canadian Citizenship Act created a
class of Canadian citizenship separate from that of great Britain
- Canada virtually excluded from the peacemaking and most of the other significant diplomatic manoeuvring of
the post-war years
- Towards the close of the war Canada tried to establish some diplomatic distance from the Americans and their
continual arm-wrestling with the Russians
- Igor Gouzenko was an obscure clerk in the Russian embassy in Ottawa and in September 1945 he defected
- Economic and political considerations impelled Canada in the direction of the US
- 1947 the nation was forced to put strict control on imports
- Wanted market access into the American program, permission for Europe to use the American money to buy
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – deflect reciprocity, as a multilateral arrangement might provide an
international counterbalance against American military domination of Cold War defence
o Canada had created and joined an American controlled alliance.
- North Korea invaded American controlled South Korea – the Americans took advantage of a Soviet boycott of
the UN security council to invoke the doctrine of collective security – the council recommended that its member
nations assist the Republic of Korea military – Americans expected Canadian support for the UN forces under
General Douglas MacArthur, and public opinion in Canada agreed
o 20 000 Canadian served in Korea – 312 fatalities and 1557 causalities
o Commanded by MacArthur broke out of a defensive position and headed north across the 38 Parallel th
they unexpectedly methChinese who pushed the allies south, the contending forced surged back and
forth across the 28 parallel for months – when MacArthur advocated the use of nuclear weapons
President Truman ordered him home
o Canadian-American relations became badly strained
o Korea added to the pressure to build up the nation’s military forces and rearm them appropriately
- Pearson had effectively created the modern concept of peacekeeping
- Consequence of ill-conceived Anglo-French intervention in Suez was the final dismantling of the British empire –
reduction in military man power, testing of Britain’s first thermonuclear bomb, policy of decolonization
- Diefenbaker governments (1957-1963) – series of dilemmas; particularly involving Canadian-American defence
arrangements – decision to scrap the Avro Arrow, the acceptance of American Bomarc missiles on Canadian soil,
and the government’s reaction to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 - Liberals regained power in 1963 under Pearson – despite Pearson’s earlier success as a world diplomat, his
governments were not distinguished by any triumphs in the international arena
- Pierre Elliot Trudeau succeeded Pearson as Prime Minister in April 1968 – less dependency on the Americans
- By the early 1970s Canada no longer was a self-defined middle power and no longer had a clear conception of its
place or role in the world affairs
Chapter 14: Prosperity and Growth in the Post-War World, 1946-1972
1944 – PC 1003 introduced
1946 – Exchange rate is 1.10$ to 1$ US
1947 – Imperial Oil bring in Leduc Oil field in southern Alberta. First private synthetic rubber plant established at Sarnia.
Canada supports the petition of Palestine.
1948 – Canada is allowed to participate in the Marshall Plan, but rejects NA free trade.
1949 – Abestos strike in Quebec.
1950 – 5$b set aside by Canadian government for rearmament with onset of Korean War. First flight of Avro CF 100
Canuck. Public struggle in BC with international woodoworkers of America.
1952 – Atomic Energy of Canada ltd established
1953 – Quebec establishes Tremblay Commission
1954 – Banks allowed to move into consumer credit and mortgages.
1956 – More than 1200 firms involved in western Canadian oil and gas. Fierce pipeline debate in House of Commons.
Merger of TLC and CCL into Canadian Labour Congress (CLC)
1957 – Gordon Commission reports. Foreign ownership becomes an issue
1958 – Royal Commission on Canada’s Economic Prospects report published. Inco strike at Sudbury.
1959 – St. Lawrence Seaway opened.
1962 – Official exchange rate for Canadian dollar set at 0.925 American. Trans-Canada Highway officially completed.
1963 – Hydro Quebec created. CUPE organized Royal Commission on Government Organization (The Glassco
1964 – 46% of Canadians tell Gallup Poll there is enough American investment;; 33% want more
1967 – Public Service Alliance of Canada created.
1968 – Task forced on the Structure of Canadian Industry issues its first report
1970 – Kari Levitt publishes Silent Surrender
- The period between 1945 and early 1970s was one of unparalleled economic growth and prosperity for Canada
o General across Western industrial world – started with rebuilding war-torn economies of Europe/Asia
o Volume of imports and exports increased
o In 1946 fewer than 40% of Canadians were white collar workers, by 1972 more than 60% were
o Farming had declined dramatically
Potash (main ingredient in fertilizers) was potentially