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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

MidtermReview Nootebook:: Poli 227- Developing Area Crreaed:: 5/2/2013 16:57 Updated:: 15/2/2013 13:39 URRL:: file:/// 1.1 What is the Developing World?: An Overview of Global Inequalities Economic Underdevelopment GDP is gross domestic product, excludingnetfactor income from abroad. GDP per capital measures the annual dollar value of goods and services produced per person negative correlation to poverty; however, notabsolute GINI coefficient measures level of inequality 0 beingcomplete equality; 1 beingcomplete inequality PPP is Purchasing Power Parity adjusted to show the amountof goods one can purchase with 1 U.S. dollar in a specific country Social Underdevelopment HDI is a composite measure of school enrollment, adultliteracy, life expectancy, and per-capita income highestpossible score is 1.000 while lowestis .000 Life expectancy and adultliteracy GDI addresses the differentallocation of resources based on gender on top of the HDI Other Terms NICS are Newly Industrialized Countries thathave notachieved status of developed, yetis enjoyingrapid economic growth and development Four Asian Tigers: Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, HongKong highGNI, export-oriented policy LDCS: less developed countries, third world, leastdeveloping countries HIPCS: highly indebted poor country, sufferingfrom severe poor challenges compounded by large external debt mostly African countries 1.2 Approaches to the Study of Third World Politics Definition of Democracy open, honest, competitive elections in which oppositions have chances of winning universal or near universal adultsuffrage open political participation / freedom of speech respectfor human rights/ minorities rights Samuel Huntington's Theory of Development Economically affluentcountries have stable political system while poor countries have unstable systems, yetmid-developing countries would become more unstable as economy develop due to the increase in technology, eduction, urbanization, mass media produces political awareness in which governments are slow to respond Bureaucratic- authoritarian States idea from O'Donnell Local business leaders and technocrats turning into repressive militants due to the need to suppress oppositions to foreign investment There are actually links between successful economies and authoritarian regimes Asian countries suchas Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand Causes of Underdevelopment- Different Theories Modernization Theory Third world countries mustacquire Western ideals and cultural value in order to create modern political and economic institution Sam Huntington: increase in social mobilization( education, urbanization, mass media) -> generates new political demands problem: in period of rapid development, demands are growing faster than institutions -> political decay Ex. Chinese communist party clams down demands therefore political system was stable drawn on Max Weber's theory of "traditional value" vs. "modern value" Basing professional developmenton merit rather than personal connections Dominated U.S. foreign policy after WWII - buildingstable, effective, responsive political government Conflict Theory vs. Reconciliation Theory Underdevelopment Approach: Dependency Theory Essentially rejected the notion of modernization theory Third world countries are greatly limited by global competition from developed economies-- economic dictatorship from multinational corporation The dependency on colonial power to supply developmental investment Core-periphery relationship: Northern economy linkage with the wealthy bourgeoisie Domestic class struggle: "comprador elites"vs large mass of rural poor Blamingall problems on external economic factors like international trade, foreign investment, credits, etc Associated-Dependent Theory: MNCs are good for economic development Institutionalist Approach Comes down to what institutions existand how they shape the political systems Enable and constrain actions; affect strategic calculation/ reflectand sustain norms Constitution deeply shape developmentand identities Path Dependency: once a pathis set itwon't be changed Ex. Canadian constitution is deeply rooted in its identity Critical Junctions: these points where institution is puttogether Ex. American second amendment Rational Choice Approach Small, individual decisions (through cost& benefitanalysis) create collective behavior restricted to material things Radical Culture Approach Group identity, tolerance, legitimacy toward cultural orientation Subjectto change due to modernization 2.1 The Impact of Colonialism Pre-Colonial Societies With few written records are hard to generalize Subsistence-based agriculture for local consumption; no long distance trade highbirth rate & high deathrate decentralized, parochial (limited in scope) Patternof Colonialism- Basis: technological; motive: economical The Americas: rich& easy to control North America came largely under French and British control Indigenous Amerindian societies are destroyed, enslaved there were no pre-colonial government/ politics in place Settler Regime: new social order based on race & class survival local parties became subordinate in all aspects Conquest by trade: plantation, cashcrop, agricultural product European-oriented economies destroyed native societies European settlements are confined to temperate area where they are no exploitable minerals Economic relationship: gold, silver, sugar, rum, bananas, cotton Asia: rich buthard to control long-standingtrading relations: expansion, trade control strongindigenous population (resistance to European disease)/ economic advantage European nations compete throughtrade monopolies Dutch Indian Company spiked colonialism in India direct corporate company competition -> political control over the company -> control of the area largely remained under coastal trading post as European rivalry restricted eachother from colonizing the land Even in places where colonized political system was accepted as a whole Economic relationship: spices, rubber, silk, opium Africa: easy to control but poor largely under Frenchand British control on the eve of WWI, exceptfor Ethiopia. Originally was to maintain commercial link to Asia/ slave trade Fuzzy colonial boundaries duringthe scramble for Africa in the 1870s Economic relationship: Firstslaves, then coffee, cocoa, gold Middle East slow to be colonized due to the Ottoman Empire (strong European influence after the crusades) French took over Algeria after WWII Latin America dominant groups are mostly of European origins -> national independence Spanish control -> strongclass structure Structure of Colonial Government Creation of new boundaries and territories Forceful political order and administrative hierarchy bothcentralized and authoritarian Creation of common Western economic (cash crop) & cultural practices Transformation of subsistence agriculture to cash crop economy trade to cash external input Colonial taxation (head tax) fixed rates are more likely to spike peasant revolt Concentration of land holdings Increasing land value; problem of indebtedness Urbanization Infrastructure for European power interest Economy of scale Depends on the climate as well British colonial imposition- The Indirect Ruling Ultimate goal is to force independence; motive is racial exclusiveness "white men's burden" British officers were expected to adapthimself to local culture Preserve systems where they are supportive of colonialism pleased traditional rulers but alienated educated elites. co-oping with elites to preserve power Those colonies with indirectrules are governed by indigenous elites Westernized economic & communication system Strongnational identity & central leadership Internal state buildinggave rise to modernizing autocrats French colonial imposition- The Direct Ruling More centralized and forced assimilation Virtually regarded traditional culture as worthless and subjected third world civilians to the Rights of Men (a civilization mission") French language, culture, nationality Less racistsince its belief in culture and not genetic Huge monetary and time commitment; challenge of power back in National Assembly; resistance to abandon native culture After WWII, France gave up assimilation to adopt"association" modelingafter British imposition to save money Protectionism: lead to the scramble for Africa as most parts of the world were closed due to protectionism and European states needed places to establish trading ports 2.2 Nationalism, National Liberation and Decolonization After WWII, a wave of decolonization shaken the third world politics lack of economic power to control the colonies European nations lost political authority Home measures such as conscription caused unpopularity Allies agreementfor independence SovietUnion and United States expanded power National Resistance Traditional Resistance: when original society mobilizes their existing resources to defend European technology Native Americans attempted to fightBritish with spears Expansion of U.S. power in aboriginal land Rarely successful but importantto national identities Nationalist Movements Rooted in the changes of societies- power of landowners, dissentof peasants a basis of resources from a transformed society Leaders were often educated in Western societies; therefore attempted to takeover colonial system as a whole. Progressive force -> press for equal rights -> organized by elites -> popular mass mass represented middle class who saw their ways blocked by colonialism Division of interest groups caused greater conflicts than decolonization Cross-class alliances attempted to link all grievances together under a common goal individual, ethnic, regional, religious groups all wanted rewards Advantage: Anti-colonial movementfocusing on ethnic differences Worked with colonial government Decolonization (Mid- 1960s) Americas Power is mostly transferred to white population American revolution spurred independence movement in Latin America too Canada Peaceful transition with confederation in 1867 Latin America Distance between Latin America and Europe weakened control Spanish and Portuguese control was weak Power is transferred to white elites (large scale agriculture) Pressingfor more economic and political autonomy from Europe European nations faced foreign policy crisis Napoleonic War, other wars in Europe U.S. (Monroe Doctrine) & British policies encouraged detachment from Spanish and Portuguese control Asia & Africa European power attempted to retain power butfailed French in Indochina duringWWII caused the division of modern day Vietnam Strong anti-colonialism thoughtrooted in national identities Elites found colonialism constraining After gainingpolitical power these elites wanted absolute power Rural peasants population -> mass revolt difficult to happen due to lack of resources and organization only happen when economy of rural survival is seriously challenged by colonial power high tax rate Can be assembled in a short time Urban population had a differentset of grievances Rural migrants discovered new sense of ethnic/ national identity due to urbanization Growing working class (students, local civil servants, emergent of professionals) from increased access to education Exposure to Western education/ideals Better access to technology, communication, organization found upper mobility blocked Small merchants found unfair trade due to foreign favoritism "Linkage Politics": source of oppositions Policingwas formed by local soldiers linked minorities to majorities Colonial power moved third world military around in the hope of limitingconnection of military to population Degree of transitions varies Protests & Strikes colonial powers were comfortable trustingtheir elites forming close alliances some colonies did not want to exit colonialism Riots are the mostcommon Syria, Egypt War of liberation French vs. Algeria Typically colonial military is capable to defeat independent armies but there is a shiftingideology at home-front Usually lead to single party domination or civil war Factors of Decolonization Evolutionary over Revolutionary Education leads to peaceful detachment Presence of Westernized elites High native population ratio Indirectrule Strengthof Colonial Attachment Degree of economic interest Strategic factors- military mobilization point Cultural factor- Algeria assimilation Strengthof National Movement Peaceful, willing decolonizationoftenpreserves the link between colonial power & colonies Creation of political elite successor -> peaceful decolonization Changing international balance of power WWII led to weak European states Bipolar control between U.S. and SovietUnion- neither wanted colonialism British Decolonization French Decolonization Have potential successors holding maintained close link to elections colonies Dyarchy aids, currency, Negotiation of Constitution military Holdings of elections Undermine minority interest Unwilling colonial detachment war radical political system (NorthVietnam) Division within national movement -> civil war 2.3 Legacies of Colonialism and the Challenges of Independence Developmental View Colonialism is a period of accelerated modernization Demands increased destruction of traditional social-political organization accelerated social mobilization risingexpectation of foreign expulsion -> self determination Capabilities were low leadership & political system was slow to react poverty & limited resources Increase in demand and limited capabilities led to political instability Civil disobedience & military rules nationalist movement -> one party rule or military coup Underdevelopment View Dependency: a controllingrelationship from colonial era. Economic relationship: patterns of trade, foreign investments, exports Social relationship: Western dominated culture Culturally constrainingbehavior in developingcountries shaped by class struggle between dominating economic elites and the large mass of urban poor nationalist regime vs. dominating capitalist states Institutionalism Legal system is deeply affected by the kind of legal system developed duringcolonial era universal pattern: Britishcolonies used common law Certain outcomes from same colonial government Colonial era through legal system transformed softidentity to hard identity Civil war & genocides Nationalist movements created modern day political parties 3.1 Statebuilding and Political Consolidation Economic relationship as well as structure of society (distribution) remained Political Instability Categorized developingregimes 66 successful military coups, often outnumbered legal, constitutional elections in the 1990s, a mountingrate of civil conflicts after superpowers stopped their support Huntington believed political order is fundamental Affected by democratic tempers Authoritarian Democratic powerful coalition peaceful transition of power may have supportive need a large, supportive coalition population for election good to have powerful powerful economic elites would not economic elites guarantee victory State Building : permanent, ongoingadministrative capacity of a state regardless of leadership. Ex. party systems Decolonization may force countries to create a new political system withoutany pre-existing structure -> weak state institution Lack political creditability with the mass population threat of secession or dispute over identity of the state 5 aspects of state building State strength of administration Capacity jail, machinery of the government State autonomy of social group Strength power to make decisions based on public interest notjustfor elites State ability to administrate rural/ disadvantaged areas Penetration State Ability of state to generate revenue through taxation Extraction Evolution of taxation: Tax on trade -> business tax (VAT, business licenses) -> Income tax Social reform, redistribution, tax credits, progressive taxation system -> only for state with developed economic structure State Attitude toward political system Legitimacy Possibility of military coup never overthrowingdemocratic governmen
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