PSYC 100 Study Guide - Intellectual Disability, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Social Environment

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28 Jan 2013

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Week 13 Language
Key properties of language:
Semanticity to refer to the extent to which a form of communication can
meaningfully represent ideas, events, and objects symbolically.
Generativity use a limited number of words and a few rules to combine words
into a virtually unlimited number of sentences
oThe cat ate the mouse – the mouse ate the cat (contains the same words but
have very different meanings)
Displacement This refers to the ability to use language to convey messages that
are not tied to the immediate context (time and place).
oDiscussing yesterdays episode of the bachelor – it already yet we can still
discuss it
What comprises language?
Phonemes: component of sound
oK, C, Ah
Morphemes: units of meaning
oCats (Cat and s are separate morphemes)
Under-extend: the world “ball” may mean specifically the ball that they own and
not refer to any other spherical toys – his cup doesn’t know what another persons
cup is called (18/30 months)
Over-extend: generalize the words they know to a wider variety of contexts
refer to any man as “dada” – or point to tape and say ouch thinking of Band-Aid
(they know the name they just cant remember-3/4 years)
Syntax: rules of language-> unconscious
oExample: “Is words a out it impossible it the of sentence if understand of
are to order.” (If the words of a sentence are out of order, it’s impossible to
understand it).
Semantics: meaning of words and the rules that govern those meanings
oCrucial for comprehension
oNot part of syntax – learn cup they first under generalize
oPrince William put the wedding band on Kate‘s finger--- I assume none of
you were concerned about Kate‘s hand under the weight of all those
Pragmatics: social use of language-> talk different to a friend then a boss
Early Speech
Telegraphic speech: Between the ages of 18 to 24 months, the average child will
start speaking in two- to three-word sentences
Vocab spurt: Two word (18 months) choose the key words “more juice” -speaking
about 50 words
IDT: infant directed talk- gets the child’s attention – young kids use it as well
oRepeat key words, use sweet tone, exaggerate tone
Nativist vs. interactionist
Describe theories of language acquisition (nativist vs. interactionist theories).
Nativist: Chomsky argues that children are born with an innate knowledge of
universal grammar, the basic features that are part of all of the world’s languages.
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