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Chapter 14.doc

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PSYC 211
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Chapter 14Applied Cognitive PsychologyBroadbent 1980oWhen psychologists examine applied settings such as the workplace they quickly discover important aspects of behaviour that may be overlooked in other forms of investigation Working in applied settings may lead not only to the solution of practical problems but also may provide information about basic psychological processes not obtainable in any other wayProblemcentered versus methodcentredMaslow 1946oCognitive psychology can be so concerned with doing methodologically correct studies that it loses sight of the practical problems that need to be addressedA problemcentered cognitive psychology runs the risk of methodological sloppinessApplied cognitive psychology requires a delicate balance between being problem0centred and being methodcentredHuman ErrorOne of the central concerns of applied cognitive psychology always has been the discovery of ways to reduce the tendency we all have to make errors in a variety of situationsActivationtriggerschema theoryNorman 1981oThere can be several different schemas for different kinds of action and more than one schema can be activated at any one time Schemas may be inappropriately activated resulting in attentional errorsoThe habitual sequence of action continues to operate without much attention and the newer action sequence never gets activated Oops I did it again effectBetsch et al 2004Eistein et al 2003Tested the fragility of intentionsoAsked participants to postpone doing one task until they had finished anotheroFound that participants were very poor at remembering to do the postponed task and concluded that when busily engaged in activities it is difficult for the cognitive system to maintain delayed intentions in focal awareness even for 5seconds Possible sources for different kinds of errors1Lapse that occurs because we have inadequately formulated what it is we actually want to dooThese errors due to faulty formulation of intentions fall into two subclassesaMode errors oOccurs when we carry out an action that would be fine for one situation mode but not for the situation in which we happen to find ourselves bDescription errorsoWe do not have a sufficiently detailed understanding of our situation 2Due to faulty activation of a schemaoCapture errorsResult when a familiar schema captures behaviour in the place of an unfamiliar one Particularly when you are trying to do something instead of an overlearned sequence it is likely that the overlearned sequence will run itself off instead oFaulty activation also reveals itself in errors due to loss of activation of the appropriate schema3The proper schema has been activated but it is triggered inappropriately oAnticipation errorsA response may occur earlier in a sequence than it should if it is only being elicited by the immediately preceding stimulus oSpoonerismYou have wasted two termsYou have tasted two wormsNorman noted that the existence of errors such as these points out the importance of monitoring ones own behaviourConsider this Box 141Dawes argued that there is an asymmetry between understanding and prediction1
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