Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
McGill (6,000)
PSYC (600)
Midterm

PSYC 211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Raphe Nuclei, Slow-Wave Sleep, Preoptic Area


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
NE&neurons&show&an&increase&in&firing&rate&when&alert/awake&and&a&decline&in&firing&rate&during&
sleep&&
o High&during&wakefulness&
o Low&during&slow&wave&
o Zero&during&REM&&
LC&activity&is&related&to&vigilance&–&continuous&attention&&
Firing&of&LC&neurons&in&monkeys&is&high&during&best&performance.&If&the&monkey&has&been&working&
for&a&long&time,&performance&declines&and&so&does&firing&rate&&
Serotonin:''
5]HT&(5]hydroxytryptamine)&neurons&are&found&in&raphe&nuclei&&
Stimulation&of&raphe&nuclei&causes&locomotion&and&cortical&arousal&(measured&by&EEG)&&
5]HT&neuron&activation&facilitates&continuous&movement&&
5]HT&neuron&activity&declines&when&responding&to&novel&stimuli&(i.e.&orienting&your&response)&&
o Involved&in&facilitating&ongoing&activities,&and&suppressing&the&processing&of&sensory&
information,&preventing&reactions&that&might&disrupt&the&ongoing&activities&&
o High&during&wakefulness&
o Low&during&slow&wave&
o Zero&during&REM&&
&
Histamine:&arousal&to&environmental&stimuli&&
Histaminergic&neurons&are&located&in&the&tuberomammillary&nucleus&(TMN)&of&the&hypothalamus&&
Projections&to&basal&forebrain&influence&(increase)&ACh&release&in&the&cerebral&cortex&&
Histamine&receptor&blockers&decrease&waking&and&increase&sleep&&
Histaminergic&neuron&activity&is&high&during&waking&and&low&during&sleep&&
Histamine&deprived&mice&fall&asleep&within&a&few&minutes&&
&
Hypocretin:&&
Hypocretinergic&neurons&are&located&in&the&lateral&hypothalamus&&
The&axons&terminate&in&areas&that&are&involved&in&arousal,&has&an&excitatory&effect&&
High&levels&of&hypocretin&is&released&during&active&waking,&low&hypocretin&during&slow&wave&and&
REM&&
Hypocretin&plays&a&role&in&motor&activity,&exploratory&activity&&
Hypocretin&infusion&into&the&LC&increases&muscle&tone&&
&
Sleep&is&controlled&by&3&factors:&&
Homeostatic:&Making&up&for&missed&sleep,&ADENOSINE&&
Allostatic:&Reactions&to&stressful&events&in&the&environment&&
Circadian:&time&of&day&tends&to&restrict&our&period&of&sleep&to&a&particular&portion&of&the&day/night&
cycle&&
&
Neural&Control&of&Sleep/Waking&Behavior&&
The&group&of&neurons&in&the&preoptic&area&(located&rostral&to&the&hypothalamus)&is&involved&in&
sleep&behavior.&When&they&become&active,&they&suppress&the&activity&of&our&arousal&neurons,&and&
we&fall&asleep&&
Destruction&of&the&preoptic&area&causes&insomnia&in&rats&&
In&cats,&sleep&suppression&eventually&causes&death&&
Electrical&stimulation&of&preoptic&area&causes&drowsiness&in&cats&and&sometimes&may&cause&
immediate&sleep&
Lesions&of&the&ventrolateral&preoptic&area&(VLPA)&suppresses&sleep&&
VLPA&neuron&activity&increases&during&sleep&&
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version