PSYC 332 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: David Buss, Impulsivity, Psychopathology

68 views52 pages
20 Jul 2016
Department
Course
Chapter 2-A Trait Theory of Personality 19:52
Theories of personality and adult development: Both concerned with what
happens to people as the years pass.
Compatible with many theoretical approaches.
The basis for most research on personality.
Personality Psychology: Provide a psychological account of the person as a
whole.
Personality measures- Usually measures of traits.
1970s: Concerned with consistency of behaviour, the validity of trait
measures and the objective reality of traits themselves.
Now- Renaissance of personality psychology.
The five-factor model
Reformation in theory and research.
Personality as defined by the model is stable.
Measures and interpretations allow us to check theories against the facts.
Perspectives on Human Nature:
3 Major Schools:
1/ Psychoanalytic: Individual’s unconscious motivations, determined through
dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies.
Individual is basically irrational, driven by animal instincts with rational
control maintained by counter forces of socially induced guilt and anxiety.
2/ Behaviourist: Observable behaviour and situational determinants,
expectancies and histories of reinforcement to explain behaviour.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 52 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Social learning theories- The role of cognitive processes in shaping
behaviour.
Individual is less ominous and unpredictable.
Human nature is the result of experiences in the social environment that
shape and reward certain behaviours.
Reactive, habit-bound, creatures of the environment.
3/ Humanistic: Humankind’s capacity to think, love and grow.
Reaction to irrational and mechanistic biases of psychoanalytic and
behavioural theories.
Love, creativity and play- important part of human nature.
Irrationality and rigidity are because of the destructive influence of society.
Different theories- People are different.
Every theory takes into account differences but this is secondary to the
theory.
Freudians- Man is naturally aggressive.
Primarily concerned with neurosis and impulse control- describing
maladjustment- But does not explain introverted and extraverted.
Other traits are trivial.
Rogerians- Capacity for openness and love.
Ex. Maslow, 1954- experiment with Lincoln and Roosevelt.
The psychology of traits/Individual differences: Idea that they might all
contain an element of truth- each theory.
Emphasizes the consistent differences of individuals.
Philosophy of human nature.
Not seen as a fourth psychology school- just a set of personality measures, a
few isolated studies, an appendix to one of the true schools.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 52 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Each theory incorporates the trait model.
Classical psychoanalytic theory- Resolution of psychosexual conflicts in
childhood and the development of characteristic defenses led to enduring
character traits- the anal personality.
Neatness.
Maslow- Humanist: Individual differences in terms of levels of basic
motivation.
Social Learning Theorists- contemporary descendants of behaviourists-
characteristics like masculinity as the result of role-modeling and
socialization processes.
Maddi(1980): Individual differences in terms of peripheral characteristics- in
contrast to the core characteristics that form the heart of personality theory.
-Each theory emphasizes certain characteristics and excludes others.
Need a system where the primary focus is on individual differences.
Basic Principles of Trait Psychology:
-Trait researchers borrowed from common sense system:
Trait theories of personality first attempt to explain the assumptions behind
the use of trait words in our every day language.
Trait measures have been based in varying degrees of immediacy on the
language of traits that has been built up over the centuries.
Traits: Dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent
patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Ranking or ordered.
The more extreme the trait- the more observable it is in behaviour.
Frequency and intensity- signs of the level of the trait.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 52 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class