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Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 386
Anahi Hudon Morales

Women’s Movement  What is the women’s movement vs. feminist movement? - Extra-institutional (grassroots, autonomous, localized), common beliefs - collective challenge to authority, challenging institutions/laws, redefining cultural norms, beliefs and categories (ex. abortion), cultural activities - Women = constituency – mobilize together - specific identities/demands, organized different depending on context, gendered access to resources (ex. political opportunities) - Successful because women aren’t taken seriously ex. Mothers of the Place of May – disappearance of sons and daughters in Argentina under military regime – government accepted their protest - Not new – organizing since1800s - ex. Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791) – De Gouges – argued for equality, ex. Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) – Wollstonecraft – subordination due to lack of education - Feminist movement – challenges gender relations – goal of changing women’s subordination and discrimination What are the main goals of the women’s movement? - Women’s Rights – employment, professional women participation, formal structure of representation (unions), decision making in bureaucratic – traditional forms of activism (marches, pressure on governments) o Ex. National Action Committee on the Status of Women (1971) – pressure group, lobbying techniques to pressure government to implement recommendations from royal commission - Women’s Liberation – sexuality, health, autonomy (young/students) – informal structures, participatory democracy, collective experience What is wrong with the category of women? - Reductionist and restrictive - doesn’t recognize diverse gender relations of power - homogenizing - “women” as white middle class women – their experiences different from lower, minority women - Intersectionality (sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, class) – within women and groups o Multiple allegiances – can’t have both demands (gender and class) – one as 2 , refusing to integrate o Hierarchy and marginalization – assumption of common interests o Political opportunities, resources, frames – how it is shaped by structural inequalities o Informal power within participatory democracy – how speaks for the whole, has access to resources? Waves – useful because one of the longest movements, different cycles of protest, see demands change - Consequence of thinking in terms of waves: linearity – not everything is straight forward, linear and linked - Continuations, rather than waves – change in terms of visibility – new feminist identities, always there - Snow – not declining but changing – challenging different systems of authority( ex. state and culture, gender norms, roles, values, economic system), visibility – different tactics may not be visible but can still exist - Redeployment rather than decline – organization disappear so others can emerge – spill over Feminism – change women’s subordination to men, challenge public/private divide, patriarchy as social/power structure - Liberal (1 wave) – gaining political and civil rights against discrimination o Women couldn’t sign legal things, no divorce, must follow nuclear family norms – discrimination context o Suffrage = main issues – equality in politics – voting and property rights (women as key actors emphasis) o Tactics: strikes, parades, petitioning, lobbying, hunger strikes, picketing o Gains: depending on context - Marxist – women’s liberation will come from liberation from capitalism - Radical (2 wave) – patriarchy as system of power organizing society on male supremacy/oppression of women o Focus on sexuality, family, workplace, reproductive rights, violence against women, equal opportunities o Tactics: protests, marches, lobbying, direct actions, consciousness raising groups o Gains: recognition that women faced discrimination at different levels/spheres, anti- discrimination policies ex. birth control (1969), greater political participation rd - 3 Wave (1990s-2000s) o Individual and personal interests (less visible than 2 wave i.e. tactics – less marches – see alternative media ex. internet, more artistic and performances ex. Vagina Monologues o Integration and inclusion (Intersectionality) – groups more diverse Post WW2 (1950s-1970s) = structural changes, new and persistent grievances - Relative deprivation compared to men – more jobs, less pay, labour as supplementary (double day) - Feminine Mystique (Friedan) – women frustrated because they expected nuclear family to be great and fulfilling, but many contradictions that influence how women though about their condition - Intersectional analysis (Roth, 2004) – race, ethnicity, class, gender) – social divisions – unequal resources, privileges, opportunities – causes difficult organizing o Black feminists – challenged black movement and feminist movement o Chicana feminists – Mexican American – challenge family roles, change to issues of sexuality Shifts in political opportunity structures - Tactics – took from student movement, participatory democracy - Electorally – new channels to voice demands/pressure authorities (political party majority, political constituents) - Recognition ex. US – need to address sex discrimination ex. 1961 Presidential Commission on Status of Women and 1964 Civil Rights Act ex. CAN – 1967 Royal Commission on the Status of Women Canada - Framing women’s rights as human rights in UN World Women’s Conferences (1975-1985) - Conservative Political Context o Less favourable to women’s movement – decrease funding to women’s group, pressure against groups challenging traditional family values, promotion of conservative values ex. Mulroney o Rise of anti-feminist, anti-choice movements, anti-gay – promoted by church and government Ambiguous legacy of previous movements - Forms of organization – formal and participatory – organizational changes - Inability to make changes that led women to becoming a more autonomous group - Public funding required accountability - Tension between founding members and new comers (insiders vs. outsiders) – three major obstacles o (1) Hard to bring in new members (2) Lack of diversity – invite people similar to you (shared identity) (3) Friendships – how to voice disagreement - Personal is political (Polleta) – analysis of friendship and dynamics within women’s movement liberation groups o Sisterhood vs. friendship - problematic to just think about identity Lesbian Organizing and Visibility in Argentina (Moreau) – women’s movement in LA * lesbian groups separate (if at all) - (1) Human rights (state abuse) (2) Community (econ sustainability) ex. soup kitchens (3) Feminist – reproduction - Ex. La Fulana – situated in LGBT movement – thought feminist groups excluded trans women - Objectives: awareness, lesbian visibility i.e. organizational (support, media), social/political inclusion, acceptance - Themes: openness, social critique (nothing wrong with being lesbian), community – anti prejudice - Women’s movement is historically/geographically specific - “woman” socially constructed, defined by inclusion Staggenborg – Social Movements - Emerged as large scale changes associated with industrialization changed women’s role in family – higher education, social reforms (temperance, abolition), gained political experience – feel limits of their poli influence st - 1 wave advocated women’s suffrage, education, property and custody rights o Canada women won the vote in 1918 (QC not until 1940) - National Women’s Party, maintained feminist movement between suffrage victory in 1920 and 1960s - Increases in women’s labour force participation/higher education, decline in birth rate, increased divorce rates created new interests and grievances – ex. employment discrimination (relative deprivation) - Contemporary women’s movement – two distinct branches: o Older/women’s right branch – professional, concerned with employment issues – formed earlier ex. National Organization for Women (NOW) o Younger/women’s liberation branch – students – women’s health, sexuality – informal organizations, participatory democracy, previous movements provided organizational base and networks - Mobilizing issues o Women’s health/reproductive rights: before 2nd wave, little information available, give women control of their bodies o Violence against women – bringing key issues of rape and domestic violence to public attention - New wave of feminist activity (1980s) - assentation of feminist identity among young women – young feminists were declaring their generational/ideological differences from 2 wave – 3 wave created new organizations/ activities ex. Vagina Monologues - 1975 International Women’s year, 1stl UN women’s conference - equality, development and peace - UN General Assembly to declare 1975-1985 the Decade of the Women - World March of Women - international campaign that expanded feminist collective identity and brought local and international activist together about issues of economic justice and women’s rights Polletta – Friendship and equality in the women’s liberation movement  - Sisterhood – captures the bonds and potential of those bonds to reach across differences ex. race/class - Doesn’t recognize differences - achieving equality - ideas too diverse for consensus/participatory democracy - Friends = useful - voluntary relationship, recognize differences but learn from each other without sacrificing respect, patient with each other, make constructive criticisms - Intimacy comes with pressures to conform, groups unwilling to formalize any aspect of decision making - First women’s group o Commitment to self-realization o Authority of personal experience o Sisterhood – common bonds with women o Equality - Features of women’s movements o Consciousness raising o Democratic decision making (short run) – decision makers often friends – social system, friends usually joined movements together - Tyranny of friendship – linked to structurelessness - Insiders and outsiders in groups – core group always sat together at meetings and was more able to mobilize other women, eager to help friends – arguing with core group would marginalize you more - No effort to socialize newcomers - organize growth to preserve egalitarian character of its decision- making - Need rules/relationships in social movement – trusting. open, caring and inclusive relationship – that’s hard part Whatever happened to the women’s movement? – Staggenborg and Taylor - Analyses of women’s movement - focus on waves and theories of social movements that focuses on contentious politics that says women’s movement is in decline and that we are seeing a post-feminist age o Think this because viewed in waves, and right now no wave intensity, doesn’t means it’s no existent o Began to decline in 1970s - Women’s movement continues to thrive– see through organizational maintenance/growth, int expansion of women’s movement organizations, spread of feminist culture/collective identity, variety of repertoires - Need a more broad idea of what a social movement is to understand that feminist movement isn’t dead – include social movement identities and communities - Multiple movements occurring at one time that influence each other – during periods without visible movement campaigns, many activists gravitate to cultural activities/alternative institutions ex. battered women’s shelters, rape crisis lines, feminist bookstores etc. Social Movement Campaigns: Mobilization and Outcomes in Montreal Women’s Movement –  Staggenborg and Lecomte  - Social movement campaigns help create networks/collective identities needed to build social movement communities, which support for collective campaigns - Analyzes 2000 World March of Women in Montreal to look at relationship between movement communities and campaigns – from success of the Bread and Roses March (1995) - Movement community resources and networks mobilized by leaders in stable movement organizations and institutions, support campaigns - Centralization, diversity and size of movement communities affect campaign mobilization - Campaigns alter movement communities by creating bonds that create basis for further campaigns and keep movement community politicized, prior campaigns generate consciousness, put issues on public agenda, create new frames, connections (leave people with experience) and networks Global Justice Movement  - Movement of movements - started in 1990, after 1999 major increase in protest events - against globalization and the changing structure of international politics (neoliberalism) , against international financial institutions, people opposed to; o Political process explanation – globalization not the causes – it created wider grievances o Globalization as symbolic resource o Organizations, frames and political opportunities - Seattle (1991) – against WTO – seen as turning point o Framed differently for different groups – but common was neoliberalism o Lots of media coverage – disrupted meetings, focus of tactics (last 1 week) o International conflict within WTO - Quebec 2001 – 3 Summit of the Americas – discussing free trade - Hong Kong 2005 – see use of puppets, symbolism, marches and masks - Framing – core element of coalition building o Global framing – use of international symbol to frame domestic conflict  Ex. Global justice/global democracy frame, Politics against Global Markets frame, Alter globalization frame - International Political Opportunity Structure o Internationalism – structures of relations among states, non-state actors and international institutions and opportunities they produce for actors to engage in collective action at different levels of this system  WTO/IMF/WB/G8/G20 – counter summits and alternative meetings - Decline of the Global Justice Movement o Intra organization struggles - what is the best way to organize? o Intra movement struggles - what forms of process? o Closing of domestic political opportunity structure o External events ex. 9/11 and US o Decline or transformation - spill over - peace movement (2001) - What difference did the global justice movement make? o Very existence o Very limited policy impact o Increased salience of socio-economic issues related to trade, development and international governance o Main impact is discursive, ideological and organizational Staggenborg – Social Movements - 1999 - Conference of WTO in Seattle – protest neo-liberal econ policies promoted by WTO/other global financial institutions -international financial institutions and their policies – global capitalism because it worsened poverty, burdening women/families, promoting environmental destruction and lowering labour standards - Anti-globalization movement changed to global justice movement promoting global democracy - Global economic changes/application of neo-liberal policies created grievances/threats around the world - Master frame: consequences of neo-liberalism and its practice by international financial institutions - Global framing:use of international symbols to frame domestic conflicts and internatilaization is a response to foreign or international pressures with domestic politics, externalization involves the vertical projection of domestic claims onto international institutions or foreign actors - Master framing helps unite a diverse movement, resource inequalities and other North-South differences make it hard to create and maintain coalitions that include participants from both developed and developing countries - Internet – critical strategic tool for global justice activists, mass media coverage aided the movement’s spread, - Targeting of corporations that symbolize abuses of global capitalism – anti sweatshop, living wage, and fair trade movements picked up steam (1990s) as labour unions, students, religious groups and community organizations attempted to counter negative effects of global capitalism on workers - Boycotts (CocaCola) – efforts to build coalitions with labour -pressure to improve working conditions in factories - Local approach – participatory self-government - Advocacy approach – single issue networks around issues used to explore larger concerns about public goods, the role of corporations, and efficiency of the public sector - State approach –progressive government leaders to implement, for example, social programs favouring the poor Organizing against Globalization: The Case of ATTAC in France – Ancelovici  - Anti-globalization movement organization – ATTAC in France – emergence is product of political entrepreneurs whose actions were constrained by previous contentious episodes (strikes of 1995 against globalization and political style at the time) - Globalization –changes in int econ that tend to produce a single market for goods, services, capital and labour o Some claim it’s just a backlash against increasing influence of foreign culture o Most agree it’s due to econ/structural changes – new cleavages, leads to distributive conflicts, polarization and eventually local resistance to the global order - Intellectuals play cen
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