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ANTHROP 1AA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Primatology, Genetic Drift, Einkorn Wheat

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Tracy Prowse
Study Guide

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Anthro Exam Review
Anthropology: the systematic study of humankind
Historical Anthropology:
o How did we evolve as humans?
o What forces have shaped us over time?
Comparative Anthropology:
o What do we all have in common?
o How do we differ?
o What are the reasons for differences?
Contextual Anthropology:
o What circumstances, environments and beliefs have shaped human behavior and understanding?
Holistic Anthropology:
o How can we understand the picture of human condition, both biological and cultural?
Subfields of Anthropology (pg 2):
o Studies all aspects of the biology and behavior of human species
o Subfields:
Osteology: the study of the skeleton, structure and function
Understanding the changes in fossils, adaptations
Paleoanthropology: the study of human fossil records
What does it mean to be human?
Primatology: study of primates and morphological characteristics to determine evolution
o Can be useful in police investigations with the skeletons of murders
o Study of past societies and their cultures using material remains (tools, ceramics, sites, etc.)
Prehistoric: artifacts of first humans
Historical: artifacts of most recent past
Classical: ancient civilizations
Ethnoarcheaology: artifacts of the past and information on modern users who understand the use
and symbolism of the artifacts
o Used in preserving threatened sites from housing and roads
o Studies the construction and use of language by human societies
Structural: how language works
Sociolinguistics: relationship between language and social behavior in cultures
o Used in government agencies to document missing languages and marketing
o Study of contemporary cultures and societies
o Culture is a transmitted and learned behavior
Methodology: participant observation: learn culture and language by participating in daily activities
Ethnography: description of culture within society
o Used in government programs to take cultural beliefs and needs into consideration
o Related to sociology, psychology, economics and political
No anthropologist is an expert at all four subfields
Holistic approach: understanding all four subfields
Research crosses over subfields (interdisciplinary)
Focuses on diversity of humans in all contests
Humans are cultural and biological
Popular perceptions about other cultures based on values and standards of ones society
Members of one culture become so accustomed to their beliefs that any other cultural tradition is bizarre
Anthropological interpretations are evaluated several ways
o The scientific method: a system of logic used to evaluate data derived from systematic observation
o Inductive method: make observations and collect data (variables such as height and weight
Hypothesis: testable proposition concerning relationship between variables
Theories: statements explaining and verifying hypotheses
o Deductive method: a general theory which scientist develop testable hypotheses
Anthropology and Humanities:
o Humanistic approach to anthropology determines symbolism and representations of the world

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o Cultural and archaeological anthropologists use this method to understand practices or institutions within a society
o Ethno poetics: study of poetry and how it relates to the experiences of people in different societies
o Ethnomusicology: musical traditions
Why Study Anthro?
o Being exposed to different societies allow us to adapt to others cultures
o Cross-cultural perspective allowing us to see ourselves as apart of one human family
o Understand human evolution and development for self-awareness
Archeology and Prehistory
o 7000 BC foragers prepared flints and left remains back to be discovered by Daniel Cahen who noted that one was left
o Collectors and treasure hunters who collect endangered, finite resource that are rapidly vanishing are performing and
irreversible act
o modern archaeology is the systematic study of humanity in the past
who owns the past?
o There is no monopoly on history
o Many civilizations believe that the world had not changed, instead there were time spans specific to certain behaviors
and memories
o Oral traditions: transmitting knowledge and history orally
What do archaeologists do?
o Study of past societies, ancient and relatively modern meaning they cannot speak to their informants
o Link material remains to human behavior and change over time
o Cultural resource management is a type of archaeology concerned with specific sites
o Work for museums, federal, state, governments, private consulting
o It is now a profession of specialists
o Prehistoric: from earliest humans to frontiers
Paleoanthropology: culture and artifacts of the earliest humans of stone technology, art, hunter-
o Classical: remains of classical civilizations of Greece and Rome
o Biblical: link biblical data with archaeology
o Egyptologists: require unusual skills for specific time periods
o Historical: problems from periods existing within written records
o Underwater, industrial
o Paloeethnobotanists: study ancient food remains
o Zooarchaeologists: specialize in animal bones
Why do archaeologists matter?
archaeology is part of pop culture to learn about the interesting past
pseudoarchaeology: using archaeological finds to tell a story about the past and avoid the science and theories behind
the symbolism
major educational weapon to bring diversity to the world
after the first Ice Age the first humans migrated out of Africa and stemmed into biological and cultural diversity of
modern humankind, art, urban and village civilization
Political tool: governments use the past to justify the present civilizations
o ex: the Aztecs became the rulers of a vast empire starting from farming and can now claim their land
use scientific and political methods
economic development: how high yields can be made without fertilizers and expenses
garbology: tells us about the discard habits of modern industrial society
Prehistory of humankind according to archaeologists
more than 2.5 mya starting with fist tool making hominines in East Africa
early prehistory: 2.5 mya 200 000 ya, tool making to modern humans
o 1.8 mya humans spread to more temperate areas, Europe and Asia for heat and protection
o homo erectus populations evolved into Homo sapiens in Eurasia
origins and spread of modern humans: 200 000 ya
o modern humans evolved in woodlands of eastern and southern Africa
o 100 000 ya into Asia
o after Ice Age humans crossed into Australia (45 000 ya)
o 15 000 ya into Alaska and Americas leaving only offshore islands of Pacific uninhabited
origins of food production: 15000 ya
o thawing of Ice Age lead to climate changes
o 10000 BC hunter gathers cultivated wild wheats and barley in response to drought, as a result farmers were

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o herding of goats and pigs replaced hunting
o plant and animal domestication developed in India, Asia, China
o plants and cereals began in Americas by 4000 BC
origins of states: 3000 BC
o centralized societies appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia
European expansion: final chapter
o Expansion of Western civilization outward from its European homeland 1430 AD
Thinking Holistically:
Holism: study of the whole of the human condition: past, present and future; biology, science, language and culture
o Interconnection of subdisciplines
o Framework to determine how varied aspects of human life are interdependent and culture integrated
o Imbalance of birth rates in China is an example of interrelationship of politics, economics, kinship, law, family
Connections with subfields:
o Archaeology connects:
Archaeologist reconstruct behavior through their study of material remains and ways of life that
are no longer observable
Cultural anthropologist provide wealth of people
Archaeologist can determine whether populations were hunter-gathers or if they were left handed
and cultural information is used to determine diets, household items and population size
Biological anthropologists work with archaeologists to reveal human past and ancestry using DNA
and archaeology uses artifacts
Connects with language to determine how populations commutated to use and make artifacts
o Linguistic connects:
Through language we can learn about culture
Language dictates gender roles and behaviors
Historical linguistics can document change and spread of cultural material
Biological anthropologists are interested in the development of human language in the brain and
o Biological connects:
Cultural changes such as anatomical aspects and technology had caused evolution of humans
through natural selection
Improved sanitation, immunization, insect control and antibiotics are cultural innovations that
allowed humans to evolve
o Cultural Connects:
Culture acts on biological laws, environmental forces
Sickle cell anemia was spread through mosquitoes which were breed from ecological changes
Took culture, biology, language, and anthropologists to understand
Gender: roles that people perform in their communities and the values and attitudes that people have regarding men
and women, cultural category
Sex: biological category, varying in their products
gender identity: how people enact expectations with their gender category
gender construct: cultural assumptions about gender roles engrained in early experiences
evolutionary perspective: DNA evidence suggest divergence of humans and nonhumans was result of climatic changes
o skeletal features distinguish hominid males and females
o females pelvic size and physical structure (bipedalism)earliest was a result of giving birth and caregiving
o men were assumed to hunt, gather and feed the family
o earliest tools were used to dig for plants
o teeth evolved based on the diet
o females preferred healthy, sociable, friendly and caring males
cultural construct of gender identity:
o primary aspect of personal and social identity
o models of behaviors and attitudes that a particular culture transmits to its members
o cultures use appropriate naming for males and females
o ideology of men and women can be conveyed through religious beliefs, practices, language, daily interactions
and activities
o gender identify can be signaled by differences in body adornments such as clothing and hair styles
gender and sexuality:
o culture determines appropriate partners, ages and practices
o laws are withheld on ages of sex and premarital sex
gender and homosexuality:
o US bans homosexuality, whereas India sees it as an expression of human desire
o ‘hirjas’: neither man nor woman
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