ANTHROP 1AA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mixed Economy, Australopithecus Anamensis, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Anthro Exam Review
Anthropology: the systematic study of humankind
Historical Anthropology:
o How did we evolve as humans?
o What forces have shaped us over time?
Comparative Anthropology:
o What do we all have in common?
o How do we differ?
o What are the reasons for differences?
Contextual Anthropology:
o What circumstances, environments and beliefs have shaped
human behavior and understanding?
Holistic Anthropology:
o How can we understand the picture of human condition, both
biological and cultural?
Subfields of Anthropology (pg 2):
o Studies all aspects of the biology and behavior of human
o Subfields:
Osteology: the study of the skeleton, structure and
Understanding the changes in fossils, adaptations
Paleoanthropology: the study of human fossil records
What does it mean to be human?
Primatology: study of primates and morphological
characteristics to determine evolution
o Can be useful in police investigations with the skeletons of
o Study of past societies and their cultures using material
remains (tools, ceramics, sites, etc.)
Prehistoric: artifacts of first humans
Historical: artifacts of most recent past
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Classical: ancient civilizations
Ethnoarcheaology: artifacts of the past and information
on modern users who understand the use and
symbolism of the artifacts
o Used in preserving threatened sites from housing and roads
o Studies the construction and use of language by human
Structural: how language works
Sociolinguistics: relationship between language and
social behavior in cultures
o Used in government agencies to document missing languages
and marketing
o Study of contemporary cultures and societies
o Culture is a transmitted and learned behavior
Methodology: participant observation: learn culture and
language by participating in daily activities
Ethnography: description of culture within society
o Used in government programs to take cultural beliefs and
needs into consideration
o Related to sociology, psychology, economics and political
No anthropologist is an expert at all four subfields
Holistic approach: understanding all four subfields
Research crosses over subfields (interdisciplinary)
Focuses on diversity of humans in all contests
Humans are cultural and biological
Popular perceptions about other cultures based on values and
standards of ones society
Members of one culture become so accustomed to their beliefs that
any other cultural tradition is bizarre
Anthropological interpretations are evaluated several ways
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o The scientific method: a system of logic used to evaluate data
derived from systematic observation
o Inductive method: make observations and collect data
(variables such as height and weight
Hypothesis: testable proposition concerning relationship
between variables
Theories: statements explaining and verifying
o Deductive method: a general theory which scientist develop
testable hypotheses
Anthropology and Humanities:
o Humanistic approach to anthropology determines symbolism and
representations of the world
o Cultural and archaeological anthropologists use this method to
understand practices or institutions within a society
o Ethno poetics: study of poetry and how it relates to the experiences
of people in different societies
o Ethnomusicology: musical traditions
Why Study Anthro?
o Being exposed to different societies allow us to adapt to others
o Cross-cultural perspective allowing us to see ourselves as apart of
one human family
o Understand human evolution and development for self-awareness
Archeology and Prehistory
o 7000 BC foragers prepared flints and left remains back to be
discovered by Daniel Cahen who noted that one was left handed
o Collectors and treasure hunters who collect endangered, finite
resource that are rapidly vanishing are performing and irreversible
o modern archaeology is the systematic study of humanity in the past
Who owns the past?
o There is no monopoly on history
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