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Quick Notes - REVIEW FOR Test 3 (Exam - new content) - LECTURE MATERIAL

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McMaster University
Margaret Fahnestock

PSYCH 2B03 2012 Quicknotes Hans Eysenck – PEN Theory  Several influences o Hippocrates and Galen – four temperaments/humors (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic) o William Sheldon – three types (somatonia, viscerotonia, cererotonia) o Ernst Kretschemers – normal and abnormal people ranged along manic-depression to normalto schizophrenia continuum; individuals with different body types prone to particular mental illness; relationship between attitude and psychopathology (extra neurotic – hysterical symptoms; intro neurotic – anxiety) o Carl Jung – introverted/extroverted  Hierarchy of Constructs (lowest to highest) 1. Acts – consists of individual behaviours or thoughts (cognitions) Experiential 2. Habits – groups of individual acts that occur together 3. Traits – sets of habits that are highly intercorrelated   4. Factors (Dimensions) – groups of intercorrelated traits Genetically determined Development  Strong genetic/biological basis i. Extroversion-Introversion  Extroversion – results when RAS (ascending reticular activating system) does not arouse cortex enough (high RAS threshold) o Underarousal of cortex leads to seeking more stimulation o In response to stimuli, slow development of excitatory potentials which are weak and quickly replaced by strong reactive inhibition (less responsive to stimulation) o Predisposed to hysterical-psychopathic disorders  Introversion – results when RAS arouses cortex more than optimal (lower RAS threshold) o Overarousal of cortex leads to avoid more stimulation o In response to stimuli, rapid development of strong excitatory potentials that are slowly replaced by weak reactive inhibition (more sensitive to stimulation; conditioning) o Predisposed to anxiety disorder and dysthymia (low mood) ii. Neuroticism-Stability  Stable – high ANS (autonomic nervous system) arousal threshold; takes intense experience to generate the physiological correlates of emotion  Neurotic – low ANS arousal threshold; highly sensitive to stimulation; ANS easily activated; experience emotions more strongly and more often iii. Psychoticism-Ego Control (added more recently)  Combining Extra/Intro and Neuro/Stable dimensions  Four Humors (Hippocrates-Galen) o Extroverted-Stable  Sanguine; sociable, outgoing, responsive, easygoing, lively o Extroverted-Neurotic  Choleric; optimistic, active, restless, irritable, aggressive, impulsive o Introverted-Stable  Phlegmatic; passive, peaceful careful, thoughtful, even-tempered o Introverted-Neurotic  Melancholic; pessimistic, moody, anxious, reserved, unsociable  Personality measures – high reliability, widely used o Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) – measures extroversion and neuroticism; 57 questions o Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) – measures all factors; 90 items/questions Factor Analytic Trait Theory  Factor Analysis – identifies patterns of intercorrelated variables and models how such patterns could be accounted for by hypothesizing common underlying characteristics or factor  Factor Loading o Higher loadings – more its value is determined by the underlying factor  Non-Orthogonal – factors correlated with each other  Orthogonal – factors uncorrelated with each other  Basic Factors o Reliable – stable over time and observers o Used by theorist and laypersons o Appear across cultures o Must have biological basis  Same set of intercorrelated measures can be interpreted several different ways o Can perform a factor analysis so that the factors are orthogonal/non-orthogonal o Number of factors revealed varies o Can perform factor analysis differently  Exploratory Factor Analysis – reveals an underlying factor structure that is currently unknown  Confirmatory Factor Analysis – determine whether newly collected data conforms to a factor structure that one has already found in other data (most factor analysis in personality is confirmatory)  Limitations o Does not find “real” things o Does not identify factors o Factors are not necessarily traits o Different set of data may reveal different factors, even though they are measures of the same thing 1 PSYCH 2B03 2012  Results depend on measures, parameters, orthogonal/non-orthogonal Early Factor Analytic Theories  Raymond Cattell – first factor analysis personality theory identified 16 factors in personality o Affection (cool vs. warm), premsia (tough-minded vs. tender-minded), surgency (sober vs. enthusiastic), tensidia, cortertia, inviva, exviva, stolparsomnia etc  Hans Eysenck – identified factors in PEN theory o Extroversion-introversion, neuroticism-stability, psychoticism-ego control The Big Five – Paul Costa and Robert McCrae  Pattern of interrelated traits can be accounted for by hypothesizing 5 underlying personality dimensions/factors 1. Extraversion-Introversion a. Social adaptability, assertiveness, sociability and ambition, positive emotionality, interpersonal involvement 2. Friendliness-Hostility – altruism, nurturance, caring and emotional support  hostility, indifference to others, self-centeredness, spitefulness, jealousy a. Conformity, agreeableness, likeability, friendly compliance, sociability, low level of socialization 3. Conscientiousness-Will a. Will to achieve, dependability, task interest, prudence, impulsivity, self-control 4. Neuroticism-Emotional Stability a. Emotional control, emotionality, adjustment, emotional stability 5. Intellect – openness to feelings and new ideas, flexibility of thought and readiness to indulge in fantasy (Digman), artistically sensitive, refined, imaginative (Zuckerman) a. Openness, culture  Changes with Age o Up between 20-40  Social dominance/extroversion  Conscientiousness  Emotional stability/neuroticism o Up in adolescence, down in old age  Social vitality  Openness o Up in old age  Agreeableness  Cultural Differences – European/America o Up in extraversion and openness o Down in agreeableness  NEO-PI Personality Test (neuroticism, extraversion, openness)  Evidence for 5 Factors from around the world o Digman and Takemoto-Chock – reanalyzed data from 6 studies using variety of rating techniques – consistent with 5 factors o McCrae and Costa – factor-analyzed S- and I-data – identified all 5 factors; similar results seen from NEO-PI o Bond et. al – found 5 factor solution using Japanese translation of Norman’s 2-scales on Japanese undergraduate students o Noller, Law and Comrey – analyzed data from Australians; administered 16 PF and EPI – evidence of 5 factors  Implications and Data based on model o Costa and McCrae – S-data and I-data (spouse) gathered on NEO-PI; age 21-96 – suggests personality stability after age 30 o Church and Katibak – analyzed Tagalog and English speaking Filipino college students – found evidence for 5 factor model o McCrae and Costa – evaluated Myer-Briggs Type Indicator; found that it measures 4 independent dimensions (not dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types) – 5 factor model provides alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings Factors Extraversion Sensation- Aggression- Negative The Alternative Five – Zuckerman and Kulman Seeking Hostility Emotionality  5 Factors (different from Big Five) 1. Sociability Traits Sociability, Sensation Emotionality 2. Neuroticism/Anxiety Activity Seeking 3. Impulsive Sensation Seeking 4. Aggression/Hostility 5. Activity Cognitive/ Reward Disinhibit ion Punishment Behavioural Expectations vs. Inhibition Expectations  Factors related to underlying activity levels of brain systems using specific neurotransmitters  Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) in blood platelets – breaks down Emotions Positive Aggression- Anxiety monoamine neurotransmitters (especially dopamine, Affect Anger norepinephrine) o Platelet MAO level has strong genetic component; Psycho- Cortical excitation vs. Inhibition (EP Adrenergic positively correlated with behavioural activity and emotionality in infants in first 3 postnatal days Physiology augmenting vs. reducing Arousal o Low MAO levels = high dopamine activity  Associated with extraversion Brain Dopamine Serotonin Epinephrine and  Related to behaviours that are correlated of Chemistry Norepinephrine sensation seeking MAO 2 PSYCH 2B03 2012  In people whose behaviours is characterized by low levels of inhibition and high impulsivity (chronic drug users, schizophrenics, borderline or antisocial personality disorders, ADD and conduct disorders)  Catecholamine – caused by MAO deficiency (Wikipedia) o Catecholamine activity high in high sensation seekers (relative to low sensation seekers) o High sensation seekers may be underaroused and seek stimulation to activate the system o Eysenck – continued high activation of the dopaminergic system  different than cortical arousal as source of reward  Evidence that dopamine activity is high in sensation seekers and extroverts o Netter and Rammsayer – gave haloperidol (dopamine antagonist) or L-DOPA (dopamine precursor)or placebo to normal on different occasions – suggested that sensation seekers and extroverts have over reactive dopaminergic systems or o Depue et al – groups high in either extroversion or impulsivity and low in the other given dopamine receptor agonist (activator) – indicated positive relationship between effects of agonist and enhanced dopaminergic activity in extroverts Six Factor Model HEXACO  (H) Honesty-Humility  (E) Emotionality  (X) Extraversion  (A) Agreeableness  (C) Conscientiousness  (O) Openness Comparing Factors Alt 5 Big 5 Eysenck Tellegen Cloniger Zuckerman Extraversion Extraversion Extraversion Positive Affectivity Novelty Seeking Sensation-Seeking Neuroticism Neuroticism Neuroticism Negative Affectivity Harm Avoidance Extraversion Sensation Seeking Conscientiousness Psychoticism Constraint Reward Dependence Activity Aggression Friendliness Cooperativeness Aggression Activity Intellect Persistence Neuroticism Self-Determination Spirituality Biological Bases of Personality  Parents genes may influence child’s personality o Direct genetic transmission o Parents genotype causes parent to provide environment that causes child to develop similar to parent o Childs genotype leads to selecting certain experiences that shape personality o Childs genetically determined temperament influences parents treatment of child affecting personality  3 Broad set of factors that contribute to differences and similarities between people in personality o Genetics o Shared Environmental Factors – common environments (family, school, broad-scale cultural conditions etc) o Non-Shared Environment – individuals unique experiences (peer groups, differences in parental treatment etc)  Studies – used to separate genetic from environmental factors o Twin Studies  If phenotype is 100% determined by genotype MZ DZ Reared Together r = 1.00 r = 0.50 Reared Apart r = 1.00 r = 0.50 o Family Studies  First Degree Relatives (parents, siblings) 50% similarity  Second Degree Relatives (aunts, uncles, grandparents) 25% similarity  Third Degree Relatives (cousins) 12.5% similarity o Adoption Studies
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